fb785900-e9cd-42d0-b228-29abe02f8132 /sites/ High Energy Ventilator (HEV)

Mechanical ventilation in hospitals (ICU and non-ICU), for intubated and non-invasive cases

Ventilators provide oxygen enriched air to patients who have difficulties in breathing, or cannot breathe autonomously. The HEV was born during the COVID-19 pandemic. HEV is a ventilator designed to provide long term alveolar ventilation support to patients, both in and out of Intensive Care, for both intubated and mask/non-invasive cases.

In light of the importance of pressure controlled ventilation modes for COVID-19 patients, the design provides standard Pressure Control and Pressure Support modes, as well as CPAP support.  PEEP is provided for all modes, as is patient triggering for both the inhale and exhale phases of the breathing cycle.  The pneumatic concept of the ventilator, i.e. ventilation provided via a low-pressure buffer, allows a precise and safe pressure control and accurate monitoring of flow rates. The step-down pressure design via the buffer puts safety up-front in the design. In addition to the COVID-19 official emergency guidelines from the MHRA, WHO and AAMI, clinical advice has guided the main choices. Much attention is paid to fast response and precise and stable pressure delivery, the simplification of ventilation modes, the synchronicity patient/ventilator and an intuitive and familiar interface for clinicians.

The mechanical design is robust, rapid and simple to construct with low cost, readily commercially available components. The functionality is aimed at the treatment of the vast majority of COVID-19 cases, but suitable as a general-purpose ventilator beyond COVID-19. The use of HEV could free up the very high-end machines for the most intensive cases.

The HEV is a fully functional prototype, and we are looking for partners who will integrate the design into a medical device that complies with applicable regulatory requirements. The HEV is also interesting academic research, as a vehicle for implementing new ideas concerning ventilation.

Buytaert, J., et al. "The HEV Ventilator" arXiv:2007.12012 (2020)
  • Functionality based on MHRA, WHO and AAMI guidelines for COVID-19 emergency ventilators
  • Low-cost design based on commercially available components, thanks to the two-step pneumatic design
  • Design inherently flexible and modular, for adaption to different requirements and environments.
  • High quality breath control and breath support, with patient comfort set as a priority
  • Air/Oxygen mixing provided internally, no need for an external unit
  • Intuitive and ergonomic touch-screen control
  • Equipped with standard bulkhead thread connector, for easy adaption to match hospital connectors around the world
  • Can be powered by a standard AC connection, or a 24V DC source from a UPS backup
  • Internal battery provides up to 45 minutes autonomy, can be augmented with a second external battery
Additional know-how and Technologies high-energy-ventilatortechnologybriefpdf.pdf Yes Read more
aaf7d6b1-0a91-400b-8df4-9e0cb7781e5a /sites/ RaDoM (Radon Dose Monitor)

RaDoM (Radon Dose Monitor) directly estimates the dose – the radiological relevant quantity for estimating the risk of lung cancer – by reproducing the energy deposition inside the lung and avoiding a number of assumptions that must be made in deriving the dose from a measurement of radon concentration in air.

It can produce one accurate measurement of radon concentration every ten minutes: this time resolved measurements assess the real radiological risk, given the variability of radon levels. Important information as the position of the sensor, time correlation between sensors, possible anomalies and ancillary environmental data can be collected and organised in the same data structure.

This is a completely forward-looking development, in the line of Smart Cities and Smart Homes. Mainly this technology will have a focus on:

  • HVAC industry: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning.
  • Schools, kindergartens and public buildings (such municipalities, cantons, federal offices).
  • Radon prone workplaces: waterworks, tunnels, mines and poorly ventilated underground operations.

Radon is a natural radioactive gas from the decay of uranium, a naturally occurring element in soil and rocks. It easily escapes from the soil and accumulates in dwellings and buildings. The progeny from radon decay is radioactive and becomes attached to dust and particulate in the air: when inhaled, this radioactive particulate settles in the lung and over time can cause lung cancer. Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking.

At CERN, we have prototyped an innovative radon monitoring device RaDoM and developed a cloud based service to collect and analyse the data, to control the measurements and to drive mitigation measures based on real time data.

  • The effective dose of radon is measured by pumping air through filters that reproduce the behaviour of the human respiratory tract.
  • 10-minute time resolution.
  • Embedded shock, temperature and humidity sensors.
  • Optional environmental sensors, e.g. CO2.
  • Cloud service based on real time data for data collection, storage and communication.
  • Communication interfaces: Ethernet 10/100 Mbps, WiFi 802.11 b/g/n, LTE, LoRa (planned).
  • Data accessible via computer or smartphone.
radompdf.pdf Yes
Technical Domains
Read more
26b38955-5a3e-46e8-92c6-a1aaf38131f0 /sites/ 3D Magnetic sensor calibrator


  • Magnet field calibration in 3D using Hall sensors
  • Whenever precise magnetic field calibration is needed between 0 and 13 Tesla



  • Up to three sensors may be calibrated in one session
  • High resolution magnetic calibration of Hall sensors in three dimensions

The 3D Magnetic Sensor Calibrator is an innovative device for calibrating magnetic field with high resolution. This calibration sensor device measures all three axes of the magnetic field, by performing a scan over the full unit sphere, independent of its orientation relative to the magnetic field. The calibration device rotates continuously around two orthogonal axes and the full range of polar and azimuthal angles is covered by a respective rotation. The parts of the device to be rotated are made very compact to fit in between pole pieces of a magnet.


Ready for licensing. The technology is protected by two patent applications: WO 2004/003585 and WO2005/064225.

Innovative features

The technology allows automated and accurate calibration of many Hall sensors in a short time which is impossible to obtain with existing commercial devices.

3d-magnetic-sensor-calibratorpdf.pdf No
Working prototype available.
Read more
af9f9202-4e5b-4d9b-9c4b-cf457ace5e3f /sites/ ActiWiz


ActiWiz allows for fast relative comparisons of the radiological hazard presented by various materials used in high energy particle accelerators, thus allowing the user to experiment with different compositions. It was conceived for the CERN accelerator complex but can be applied to similar accelerator environments. Materials can be easily defined by the user based on a collection of fundamental components like chemical elements. Subsequently the user can readily compare the resulting radiological hazard of several materials for various irradiation scenarios typically encountered at high-energy proton accelerators.



• Easy and fast assessment of the radiological hazard exhibited by user-defined materials used in high-energy proton accelerator environments

• Risk model can be tuned to reflect operational schedule/cycle of the accelerator facility

• Material composition can be easily changed and the impact of impurities can be assessed very quickly

• Determination of nuclide inventories and dominating isotopes available on request



The assessment is limited to pre-defined generic irradiation scenarios. The currently comprised radiation environments reflect CERN’s high-energy proton accelerators and the parameters of the risk model are tailored specifically for CERN’s accelerator operation/maintenance cycle. Adaptation to different radiation fields and operation cycles is possible. The required time and effort need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis. For further information please refer to the KT contact in this document.

The activation of material is often an important issue for all environments exposed to accelerator beams. It has considerable impact on safety and handling constraints. One of the key parameters responsible for activation is the chemical composition of the material involved which can often be optimized in order to reduce material activation. However, this is a quite complex and time consuming task which requires considerable expertise in the field of radiation protection. The ActiWiz software has been developed with the aim to hide this complexity by reducing the problem to the definition of a few input parameters via a graphical user interface. Based on a large amount of generic FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations the software applies a specifically developed risk assessment model to provide support to decision makers for choosing materials with low(er) activation risks. In addition to using the software, a catalogue providing a reference of the radiological risk of large number of typical construction materials has been compiled and can be made available to interested parties.



Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8



H. VINCKE, C. THEIS - ActiWiz – Optimizing your Nuclide Inventory at Proton Accelerators with a Computer Code; Proceedings of the ICRS12 conference, 2012, Nara, Japan, Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology, accepted for publication (2013).

The software rights are exclusively owned by CERN. Available for licensing - both under an Academic and an commercial licence. For more information refer to the KT contact. Radiation and Hadron therapy actiwizpdf.pdf No Read more
976a32d8-9a5d-47c6-8791-84fb62ea8a36 /sites/ CERN Control and Monitoring Framework — C2MON


  •  All types of industrial control applications.

  •  Large and complex control & monitoring environments with diverse infrastructure.

  •  Healthcare applications like patient monitoring

C2MON is a modular Java framework for fast building, highly available, large-scale industrial monitoring and control solutions. It has been developed for CERN’s demanding infrastructure monitoring needs and is based on more than 10 years of experience with the Technical Infrastructure Monitoring (TIM) systems at CERN.

C2MON provides a simple and intuitive data subscription API with integrated history browsing capabilities that can be used to form the basis for industrial dashboards and other graphical monitoring applications. It also provides powerful and configurable filtering mechanisms, essential for finetuning data flow and preventing data burst situations, thereby ensuring network stability and reliability.

C2MON is built on a three-tier architecture: Data Acquisition, Server and Client API. This architecture conveniently decouples functionality and allows modular development to fit particular needs.

The platform supplies all core functionalities of a monitoring system while being extensible and adaptable to a wide variety of monitoring requirements. This is made possible by the modular, clusterable server architecture which benefits from a distributed in-memory cache. Sudden and unforeseen machine breakdowns or scheduled upgrades of any part of the system are handled in a transparent manner without service discontinuity. 


Distributed under Open Source license (LGPL v.3)


  •  Modern HTML5 web interface to browse the acquired data, display statistics and manage system configuration.

  •  Sophisticated filtering & alarm mechanism resulting to meaningful alerts

  •  Modular design, allowing custom extensions. Horizontal scalability at all layers

  •  Ability to handle high throughput and millions of different sensors

  •  Support for arbitrary sensor value objects through JSON serialisation in planning

  •  Built-In rule engine to express complex data relations

  •  Load-balanced server clustering capability

  •  Central configuration management

  •  Ability to browse historical data through web interface and Client API

  •  REST API available 

Radiation and Hadron therapy, Simulations and Computing c2monpdf.pdf No
Distributed under Open Source license (LGPL v.3)
Read more
1da3df0c-898f-47ad-93ea-88b90cc123df /sites/ CERN VM-FS


Large-scale computing, big data processing.



  • Various Linux distributions (x86, AMD64, ARM) & Mac OS X (client) supported.
  • Global-scale open source file system optimized for software distribution.
  • Data transport via standard HTTP protocol.
  • Data integrity secured by cryptographic hashes and digital signatures.
  • File system level versioning.
  • Data de-duplication.
  • Transparent data compression/decompression and file chunking.
  • Capability to hot patch the file system client.
  • Capability to work in offline mode providing that all required files are cached.
  • Possibility to use Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) compatible storage as a data backend.

CernVM-FS is a web-based, global, and versioning file system optimized for software distribution.  The file system content is installed on a central web server from where it can be mirrored and cached by other web servers and web proxies.  File system clients download data and meta-data on demand and cache them locally.  Data integrity and authenticity is ensured by cryptographic hashes and digital signatures.  CernVM-FS is used, among others, by the LHC experiments for the distribution of 100 million files and directories of LHC experiment software onto tens of thousands of nodes distributed worldwide.


cernvm-fspdf.pdf No Read more
4ecfd3ea-da1e-4992-a030-ce3a3073d4a5 /sites/ CERNbot


  • Autonomous interventions in hostile environments in particular in presence of ionising radiation.
  • Up to two coordinated commercial robotic arms installed providing for complex intervention capabilities.

  • Real-time operating system.

  • In the future, this system might be combined with a trained neural network to recognise scenes with the help of specific alpha-numeric markings.


  • Highly versatile robotic platform
  • High pay-load for a platform this size.

  • Very competitive cost base.

  • Based on standard industrial components with predictable upgrade path.

  • Intelligent inspection and intervention reducing employee exposure.

  • Data-extraction from previously inaccessible areas.

CERNbot is a modular and flexible robotic platform developed at CERN for complex interventions in harsh environments. It is highly customisable platform that can receive up to two commercial robotic arms working together in a coordinated manner. 


CERN cernbotpdf.pdf No Read more
68637b9d-151e-4abe-abb6-bbacc19ab496 /sites/ CHARM CHARM (CERN High energy AcceleRator Mixed field facility) has been built at CERN in the Proton Synchrotron (PS) east area. The facility scope is to assess radiation effects on electronics not only at component level but also at system level within particle accelerator representative environments. Its available radiation fields are also characteristics for ground and atmospheric environments (neutron energy spectra) as well as for space environments (representative for the inner proton radiation belt).The size of the available test area is such that large objects can also be irradiated. The target area is large enough to host a complete accelerator control or powering system (e. g for LHC power converters) but also full satellites, and parts of cars or planes.In addition it is possible to irradiate electronic systems in highly representative conditions, including with operational power and control systems.Read more at No
Technical Domains
Read more
9f8661a1-2982-43cd-8bb9-75a9e84e194f /sites/ Coaxial Pulse Conditioner


Applications that could benefit from flat-top stability and flat-top repeatability include:

  • Radar transmitters
  • RF power amplifiers
  • Beam injectors for medical and industrial particle accelerators
  • Pulsed ultraviolet sources for sterilization of drinking water and industrial lubricants
  • Pulsed laser drivers for surgical and industrial applications
  • Modulators for X-ray sources, e.g. for cargo scanning, industrial applications, medical imaging applications
  • Synchrotron light sources


  • Separate stand-alone device which can be connected to and disconnected from a modulator without modifying the modulator or altering the design or the topology of the modulator.
  • Does not need to be ground-referenced.
  • Generally fault-tolerant: in the case of a failure, the pulse waveform in the load is similar to the incoming pulse waveform fed into the coaxial pulse conditioner.


  • The technology has only been manufactured once for CERN’s scientific programme. The unit cost associated with high volume production would need to be determined.
  • The operation parameters of the system are typically 1-50 kV voltage, 1-5000 A current, pulse duration from 10 ns up to tens of microseconds.

The Coaxial Pulse Conditioner can improve the pulse stability (also known as pulse flatness) and repeatability (pulse-to-pulse stability) of pulsed power systems from typical industrial standard +/- 1 % down to +/-0.02 % or better.

The Coaxial Pulse Conditioner operates by active modification of the pulse waveform using, in its simplest form, a resistance, an inductance and an RF power transistor in a stand-alone device. This enables the Coaxial Pulse Conditioner to be connected to, and disconnected from, a modulator without modifying the modulator or altering its design or topology: providing a flexible option that can be integrated into new or existing pulse power systems. It also does not need to be ground-referenced, as is the case with the analogue modulation layer in an inductive adder.

The improved pulse stability provided by the Coaxial Pulse Conditioner could increase the achievable resolution in applications such as radars and X-ray sources. In radiotherapy and proton therapy facilities, the improved stability could improve the precision of the dose that is given to a patient. In synchrotron light sources, the improved stability could improve the achievable emittance, which is a key measure of machine performance.

The technology is based on the modulation layer concept used in some inductive adders, in which a stack of inductive adders with active analogue modulation layers can be used as a pulse conditioner.


  • Licensing of proprietary CERN designs (know-how)
  • Consultancy


Referenced in the conclusion of J. Holma, M.J. Barnes, “Measurements on a 12.5/17.5 kV Inductive Adder with Extremely High Stability for the Damping Ring Kickers of the Compact Linear Collider at CERN”, Publ. in: 2019 21st European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE ‘19 ECCE Europe), DOI: 10.23919/EPE.2019.8915001

  • Pulse flat-top stability down to +/-0.02 % or better.
  • Connectivity to virtually any pulse modulator topology in the market — can be installed in existing or new pulsed-power systems.
  • The voltage or current measurement, needed for the operation of the pulse conditioner, can be done upstream or downstream from the coaxial pulse conditioner in the system, or inside the pulse conditioner.
  • Provides precisely controlled modulation waveform, with an almost arbitrary flat-top shape, within a certain modulation range, typically a few percent of the pulse amplitude.
  • In addition to improving flat-top stability and repeatability, the coaxial pulse conditioner can also be used to modulate the waveform e.g. to a sinewave, triangle wave, ramp up/down and arbitrary waveforms. The amplitude of applied modulation can be approximately up to 10 % of the maximum amplitude of the waveform.
  • The pulse conditioner is applicable in pulsed power systems in which a direct feedback loop control cannot be used, usually because the pulse is so short.
Additional know-how and Technologies coaxial-pulse-conditioner20200305pdf.pdf No Read more
5e3e859c-03ed-43ad-aa53-c86e2c261a8e /sites/ Compact Universal Orbital Cutter


  • High energy physics laboratories
  • Nuclear facilities
  • Oil and gas industry

Developed during CERN’s Long Shutdown 1, this orbital cutting machine has been designed to cut a broad range of pipes of different diameters and materials located in places which are particularly difficult to access. Once mounted on a pipe, the cutter operates autonomously without manual assistance, making it suitable to cut pipes which present health hazards, such as radioactively contaminated pipes.


Know-how & detailed design and schematics available


  • Autonomous cutting, driven by hydraulic motor
  • Flexible diameter (from 100 to 1200 mm)
  • Adaptable circular saw for pipes of different thicknesses and materials
compact-universal-orbital-cutterpdf.pdf No
First generation of technology developed. Working prototype.
Technical Domains
Read more
92c61773-277c-4f00-bc53-f66af404d9ff /sites/ DC-DC converter


  • Input voltage range 5 to 12V

  • Continuous 4A load capability

  • Integrated Power N-channel MOSFETs

  • Adjustable switching frequency 1-3MHz

  • Synchronous Buck topology with continuous mode operation

  • High bandwidth feedback loop (150KHz) for good transient performance

  • Over-Current protection

  • Under-voltage lockup

  • Over-Temperature protection

  • Power Good output

  • Enable Input

  • Selectable Power Transistor size (5/5th or 2/5th) for improved efficiency at small loads (

  • Radiation tolerant: TID up to >200Mrad(Si), displacement damage up to 5.1014n/cm2 (1MeV-equivalent), continuous operation during exposure to heavy ions of LET up to 64MeVcm2mg-1 with short transients below 20% of the nominal Vout (no destructive event, no output power interruption).



  • Avionics
  • Space
  • Nuclear industry 
  • Point Of Load in distributed power systems where either radiation tolerance or magnetic field tolerance, or both, are required. 

A radiation and magnetic field tolerant DC-DC Point-Of-Load (POL), which enables distribution at higher voltage, with local on-detector conversion to the voltage required by the electronics, considerably decreasing the current in the cables. As main features, FEAST 2 presents bandgap, handling of dead time with adaptive logic, protection Over-Current (OVO) and Over-Temperature (OPT) and protection Input Voltage Lock Out (ULVO).

Federico Faccio Know-how

Find specifications by following this link.

dc-dc-converterpdf.pdf No
Technical Domains
Read more
d443d6e7-5995-4581-aaa3-7a4e3bc4766e /sites/ Diaphragm System


  • Couplings
  • Electrical Connectors
  • Tubing and piping
  • Tool holding equipment, chucks
  • Heatexchangers
  • Work piece holding equipment



  • Orientation of laminations provides a balanced system with minimal vibrations when rotated even on extremely high speeds.
  • Cost efficient way due to simple and identical laminations. May be punched or cut by water jet.
  • Flexible- nearly any shape may be positioned.
  • The system may be modulated to eliminate the effect of centrifugal forces, alternatively let centrifugal forces increase the centering and clamping effect.
  • The system offers highly precise positioning in an order of magnitude better than the precision of the laminations, depending on the number of laminations used (micron range).
  • Efficient way to position and clamp an object inside a main object.
  • Strong holding force may be applied.



  • Laminations may leave traces on the object being positioned if the clamping force is high, depending on the materials involved.

The Diaphragm System allows precise positioning and holding of one or more elements in a main element. More specifically, the technology uses a simple mechanical principle and punched laminations to position/center and hold elements of nearly any shape with extremely high precision in a cost effective way.


The Diaphragm System has been successfully transferred to Hainbuch and Ijspeert Innovative Technologies for the development of tool holding equipment, providing an efficient method to precisely position and clamp work pieces for machining, and the flexibility to be integrated into tailor made solutions. Applications are available from Hainbuch and Ijspeert Innovative Technologies.

Ready for licensing through CERN TT or through Ijspeert Innovative Technologies. Patents granted in Europe and USA. PCT. WO0129471.

Innovative features

  • Precise positioning achieved by laminations with a slightly offset aperture.
  • Depending on the shape of the aperture of the laminations many different structures may be positioned and to a certain degree clamped.
  • Release of the objects being positioned may be done efficiently depending on the mechanism providing the clamping force.
  • Identical laminations used with different orientation to obtain positioning force.
  • The system may position a number of different objects inside a main structure that provide a clamping force.
diaphragm-systempdf.pdf No
Ready for licensing through CERN TT or through Ijspeert Innovative Technologies. Patents granted in Europe and USA. PCT. WO0129471.
Technical Domains
Read more
fe846a0f-25ad-4008-9085-ed45aa04e18e /sites/ Fast front-end readout electronics for photon and electron counting applications


  • Electron spectroscopy.
  • Electron and photon counting in life science and medical imaging.



  • Low power consumption (
  • Maximal few hundred electrons noise for input capacities less than 10pF.
  • High counting rate (5 MHz/mm2).
  • High radiation hardness.

Based on developments for experiments at the LHC collider, CERN has developed various high performance readout chips for a potential use in medical imaging, life science applications and material research. In combination with ultra fast photon and electron detectors, this technology offers extremely fast and low noise photon and electron counting possibilities, providing significant advances in domains such as photon sciences and electron spectroscopy. For the application domain of Computer Tomography (CT) this technology is exclusively marketed by Interon AS, Norway.

Various ready-to-use chip models can be licensed, available off the shelf, or can be produced on short term. CERN provides support and solutions for integration of such chips with user specific detectors and support structures upon request.

Innovative features

Compact packaging through 0.25µm CMOS technology 16 to 128 channels per chip.

Imaging fast-front-end-readout-electronics-photon-and-electron-counting-applicationspdf.pdf No Read more
268898fd-c502-4a5b-be3a-be57a12f6850 /sites/ Flame detector


  • Forest fire detection systems
  • Flame and fire detection in challenging environments and at large distances such as: industrial halls, ships, offshore platforms, engine rooms, fuel stations, chemical storages, gas storages and hangars.


  • May respond to welding at long range, lightning, arcs and corona
  • Challenging construction of the detector in some photosensitive gases with alignment of the holes for the thick GEM detector

Supersensitive UV flame detector based on wire- or GEM-type amplification structure. In contrast to commercial UV flame sensors, in these detectors, either semiconducting solid photocathodes or gaseous with small ionization potential are used as main photosensitive elements. As a result, the sensitivity is much higher than the best commercial sensors, depending on a particular design.

Wire and GEM-based gaseous detectors operate in proportional mode and can detect various flames, including sparks, in direct sunlight conditions. Combined with compact pulse UV sources, they can detect simultaneously not only flames, but also smoke and some dangerous gases, for example benzene or toluene vapours. GEM-based detectors supplied with a lens can also provide information on the position of the flame and smoke. 

To make the detector robust, modified versions of GEMs were developed and successfully used in the latest designs: ether a so-called thick GEM or a resistive GEM, both manufactured from printed circuit boards.

  • Detection of match flame at a distance of 30m
  • Detection of small sparks at a distance of 5-7m
  • Sensitivity of 100-1000 times higher than the best commercial sensors, depending on a particular design
  • Possibility of flame localization and visualization
  • Instant respond time (1 microsecond)
  • Use of compact regular battery to operate
  • Temperature operation:
    • With solid photocathodes from -188oC to 100oC
    • With gaseous photocathodes 5oC to 200oC (below 5oC may lost efficiency)
  • Humidity operation: up to 80% - 100%, depending on a design
CERN proprietary knowledge and European patent (EP 2976778 (A1))
Technical Domains
Read more
04811f16-7eaf-4d51-9c9b-4526137a8ea6 /sites/ FLUKA


  • proton and electron accelerator shielding
  • Target design
  • Calorimetry
  • Activation
  • Dosimetry
  • Detector design
  • Accelerator Driven Systems
  • Cosmic rays
  • Neutrino physics
  • Radiotherapy



The highest priority in the design and development of FLUKA has always been the implementation and improvement of sound and modern physical models. Results are regularly checked against experimental data. As a result, the code has reached a high level of reliability and it provides predictability where no experimental data are directly available.

Another feature of FLUKA is its double capability to be used in a biased mode as well as a fully analogue code. For most applications, no programming is required from the user. However, a number of user interface routines (in Fortran 77) are available for users with special requirements.

•             A friendly user interface is available, as well as a 3D visualisation tool

•             User support is provided through the web site and a dedicated mailing list

•             Courses for beginners and for advanced users are regularly organised

FLUKA (FLUktuierende KAskade or Fluctuating Cascade) is a general purpose tool for calculations of particle transport and interactions with matter.

FLUKA can simulate, with high accuracy, the interaction and propagation of about 60 different particles in matter, including photons and electrons from 1 keV to thousands of TeV, neutrinos, muons of any energy, hadrons of energies up to 20 TeV (up to 10 PeV by linking FLUKA with the DPMJET code) and all the corresponding antiparticles, neutrons down to thermal energies and heavy ions. The program can also transport polarised photons (e.g., synchrotron radiation) and optical photons.

FLUKA can handle even very complex geometries, using an improved version of the well-known Combinatorial Geometry (CG) package. The FLUKA CG has been designed to track correctly also charged particles (even in the presence of magnetic or electric fields).  It is also possible to describe a complex geometry in terms of "voxels" (tiny parallelepipeds forming a 3-dimensional grid), method that is especially useful when translating a CT scan of a human body into a dosimetry phantom.

Time evolution and tracking of emitted radiation from unstable residual nuclei can be performed online.

More information can be found on the official FLUKA website

FLUKA is supported by the advanced and user friendly interface Flair (, which features a modern and intuitive design and offers a powerful geometry viewer.

CERN Free for non-commercial use in internal scientific non-military purposes. For commercial use, see contact person.

All relevant spesifications and technical aspects of the technology can be found in the online manual of FLUKA.

Simulations and Computing No
FLUKA version 2011-3.0 has been released.
Read more
598b35b1-7e14-4d02-8064-f394b7082a42 /sites/ FSI Vacuum Heads


  • FSI measurement with high absolute precision within closed vacuum vessels/cryostats.
  • Refraction issues caused by light passing though glass windows are removed.

Possible Application Areas

  • Contactless measurement of objects with different temperatures, allowing for heat conduction effects minimizing.
  • Very high precision alignment for aerospace applications.


When components are put under vacuum and/or cryogenic temperatures, the properties and dimensions of the materials change. This can result in unforeseen consequences such as displacement etc., which in turn can cause reduced performance. Models can be applied to simulate these effects, but for complex devices and systems, it is necessary to actually measure the effects, both to correct these effects and to improve the models. For this reason, the CERN metrology group has developed the Frequency Scanning Interferometry (FSI) Vacuum Heads, in particular for the HL-LHC project to monitor changes of position of the crab cavities as they are put under vacuum and cryogenic conditions.

The device is essentially an FSI measurement collimating optical system built into an interface between atmospheric conditions and a vacuum and/or cryogenic environment, enabling FSI measurement without impact of refraction index of laser transmission mediums. Conventionally, such measurements would be done through a strong glass window.

By using a device such as the FSI head we increase  accuracy because refraction issues (from light passing through glass windows at vacuum interface) are removed or reduced. The laser beam for FSI is provided by fibre into the device. Moreover, thanks to fiducialisation techniques – the in-head optics optical path datum can be known out of the FSI head.

Projects using this technology today:

Non contact cold mass measurements are planned for HL-LHC inner triplets and crab cavities.

Mateusz Sosin
  • Compatible with absolute  and relative interferometric systems.
  • Uncertainty: typical 10-15µm (depending of fiducialisation method of the head).
  • Measurement distance in vacuum: 0.2m – several meters  (internal construction might be easily adopted to user need).
  • Fibre length – up to several hundred meters (depends on interferometric system limitation).
fsi-vacuum-headspdf.pdf No
Technical Domains
Read more
d462c090-954d-4482-959d-3060dc8d8d3c /sites/ Gas electron multiplier

Possible applications

  • Medical Imaging.
  • Radiation Therapy Dosimetry.
  • High-Energy Physics.
  • Astronomy/Astrophysics.
  • Material Analysis.
  • Systems for Radiation Detection and Monitoring.



  • Safe non-explosive gas mixtures.
  • Very high radiation rate capability.
  • High sturdiness and reliability.
  • Flexible detector shape and readout patterns.
  • High time and position resolutions.
  • High performance at low cost.
  • High achievable gains in a multiple pre-amplification structure.
  • Can be used as detector on its own.
  • Works in harsh radiation environment.



  • Complexity added by gas chamber compared to solid-state detectors.
  • Low quantum efficiency compared to solid-state detectors.

The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a proven amplification technique for position detection of ionising radiation such as charged particles, photons, X-rays and neutrons, in gas detectors. The GEM is a detector containing a densely pierced polymer foil coated with electrodes on both sides which is able to achieve high amplification gains and performance at low cost, even under harsh conditions. A GEM consists of a thin, metal-clad polymer foil, chemically pierced by a high density of holes. On application of a difference of potential between the two electrodes, electrons released by radiation in the gas on one side of the structure drift into the holes, multiply and transfer to a collection region. This gas detector is extensively used in High Energy Physics.


CERN grants royalty-free licenses for Research and Development use of GEM foils. Any commercial use of GEM foils is subject to acquiring a commercial license from CERN, on conditions to be agreed. In case of direct GEM purchase, a license fee is included


  • 200 cm x 50 cm currently maximum active area.
  • 1 MHz/mm2 of photon flux rate.
  • 40 micrometers of spatial resolution.
  • 90% achievable gain – 105.
  • 15-20% energy resolution.
  • Holes pitch: 140μm
  • Holes diameter in copper: 70μm +/-5μm
  • Holes diameter in Kapton: 50μm +/-5μm
  • Leakage currents: less than 10 nA at 600V @ 30%HR
  • Breakdown voltage: 650V in air @ 30%HR


Documented material


Technical contacts:


Imaging gas-electron-multiplier.pdf, gas-electron-multiplierpdf.pdf
Patented technology; WO/1999/021211
No Read more
b33fbf8f-b9b8-410b-8a5d-8d4b330ead83 /sites/ GaToroid


  • Charged particle therapy (protons and ions).


  • Non-rotating gantry, reducing the stability requirements, hence mass and footprint.
  • Smaller and lighter gantry due to the use of superconductors.
  • No magnetic field effect to the patient.
  • Possibility to use different number of coils, corresponding to different angles of treatment.
  • Operation in steady state, the speed of delivery only depends on the bending device.
  • Fast switching of energy and direction.
  • Possibility to perform sagittal and transverse painting for treatment.


  • Beam delivery only at specific angles.

GaToroid is an innovative gantry design based upon a toroidal magnet concept, which eliminates the need to rotate the structure. The gantry comprises a set of discrete superconducting coils constituting the toroidal magnet, and a bending device at the entrance of the structure. 

By selecting the impinging angle of beams with different momentum values, it is possible to reach different spots (if beams have same entry point) or to get a focusing effect (if beams enter the magnet from different angles).   

GaToroid is meant to be lightweight: if used with proton beams, the structure would have an outer diameter of about 3.2m, for a total weight estimated around 12 tons. For carbon ion beams, the outer diameter would be of the order of 5m, for a total weight of around 50 tons. This represents a substantial weight reduction compared to conventional gantries, which weights around 100 tons for protons and over 350 tons for carbon ions.

Since this system works in steady state with no rotation, it can fully exploit the potential of superconductors, having no limitations by current or system’s movement.

Radiation and Hadron therapy gatoroidpdfpdf.pdf
Patent Successfully Filed (EP18173426.0)
Year Filed
Technical Domains
Read more
91d088a3-0e9e-458e-9cfc-3d3875f4092c /sites/ Geant4


  • High-Energy Physics experiments and detector design
  • Radiation shielding
  • Calorimetry
  • Cosmic rays
  • Neutrino physics
  • Dosimetry
  • Radiotherapy
  • Biological damage studies
  • Assessment of radiation damage to the electronics of satellites
  • Study of the radiation environment of planets.



  • State-of-the-art physics models, regularly checked and validated against experimental data, combinable to achieve the highest simulation quality.
  • Support for complex 3D geometries such as the detectors of the LHC experiments and models in motion of the human body.
  • Geometry modeller able to efficiently track particles within complex geometries ranging from the molecular scale to the size of a planet.
  • Full description of materials making up specific setups in terms of their elements and isotopes.
  • Biasing techniques to reduce computational time for intensive applications including ‘reverse Monte Carlo’ techniques for concentrating the radiation effects on very small targets and a framework for combining detailed and fast/parameterised simulation.
  • Easily extendible and adaptable to external software frameworks.
  • Powerful user interface and visualisation engine. 

Geant4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter. It is the reference simulation engine for the LHC experiments at CERN and other high energy physics labs worldwide.

Geant4 covers all relevant physics processes, electromagnetic, hadronic, decay, optical, for long and short lived particles, for energy range spanning from tens of eV to TeV scale. The transport of low energy neutrons down to thermal energies can also be handled. The software can also simulate remnants of hadronic interactions, including atomic de-excitation and provides extension to low energies down to the DNA scale for biological modelling.

The software is based on a sound object-oriented design which favours a variety of application development by the community, like for example the propagation of acoustic phonons in cryogenic crystals, the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE), the beam line simulation (G4BEAMLINE) and others.



Geant4 is written in C++ and runs on Linux, Mac OS, Windows and different types of UNIX flavours, 32 or 64 bits, and on modern parallel architectures. 
User support is provided through the Geant4 website where documentation is available as well. 


Reference Publications

  • S. Agostinelli et al., “Geant4 - a simulation toolkit”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 506 (2003) 250-303 

  • J. Allison et al., “Geant4 developments and applications”, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 53 No. 1 (2006) 270-278 
Geant4 is available under an open source licence based on the EGEE licence model. Radiation and Hadron therapy, Simulations and Computing geant4pdf.pdf No
Geant4 is available under an open source licence based on the EGEE licence model. The copyright of the Geant4 software is vested in the members of the Geant4 Collaboration. 
For commercial consultancy and other enquiries please contact CERN KT.
Read more
0d349895-7e3c-491d-80e0-122864a7df54 /sites/ GEMPix


  • Dosimetry, microdosimetry and sub-microdosimetry
  • Radiobiology; analysis of biological effects of radiation on tissue samples
  • Conventional radiation therapy and hadron therapy
  • Measurements of low-energy photons in radioactive waste monitoring
  • 2D beam imaging in radiation therapy
  • 3D energy deposition reconstruction in hadron therapy
  • X-ray monitoring in burning plasma physics

The GEMPix detector combines existing CERN-developed technologies - GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier), a type of gaseous ionisation detector and Medipix, a family of photon-counting pixel detectors. In combination, the features of each technology are enhanced and the resultant technology is a hybrid device able to detect all types of radiation with a high spatial resolution.

The purpose of the technology is to measure and visualise the low-energy deposits in gas or tissue-equivalent samples. Due to the wide gain range of the chamber, the new device could also be used to measure particle beam structure (i.e. protons and carbon ions) in hadron therapy with good spatial resolution. It may be used also for X-ray monitoring in burning plasma physics.

Industrial Secret
  • Use of triple-GEM technology allows a wide-gain range in particle detection.
  • Use of Timepix, an advanced version of Medipix, allows 3D reconstruction of the particle track and particle identification.
Radiation and Hadron therapy, Dosimetry gempixpdf0.pdf No Read more
c355afc8-8ce5-4440-b447-406f2411cd60 /sites/ High Frequency Compact Linear Proton Accelerator


  • Modular, permitting cascading of several RFQ modules and integration into larger accelerating structure
  • Very compact
  • No shielding required



  • Linac-based proton therapy facilities
  • PET isotope production
  • Technetium production for SPECT tomography
  • Brachytherapy
  • Material analysis

As part of the Medical Applications Programme at CERN, a novel very compact radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator has been designed. Operating at a frequency of 750 MHz and having adapted beam optics, this RFQ can reach an energy of 5 MeV over a distance of 2 m. It is a suitable alternative to cyclotrons for use in medical applications, for example as an injector for higher energy linacs or as a standalone accelerator for radioisotope production.

First prototype is being manufactured. Beam tests scheduled for 2016.

Patented; available for licensing

Operating at a frequency of 750 MHz and having adapted beam optics, this RFQ can reach an energy of 5 MeV over a distance of 2 m.

Radiation and Hadron therapy, Radioisotopes high-frequency-compact-linear-proton-acceleratorpdf.pdf No Read more
d6792dbc-f7c5-4609-af08-d0af94a3d264 /sites/ High performance time to digital converter


Signal processing in instrumentation for biology, medical imaging, laser ranging, life science and material research.

This technology is a high performance time to digital converter ASIC chip for use in applications requiring precise time-tagging of electronic signals, e.g. for electron and photon detection in medical imaging, laser ranging, life science or material research. This so-called HPTDC ASIC allows precise time-tagging of up to 32 input channels relative to an external clock reference of 40MHz. Based on an integrated clock multiplying Phase Locked Loop (PLL), a 32-channel Delay Locked Loop (DLL) with integrated RC-delay lines provides time interpolation down to 25ps.

At CERN this technology is widely used in high resolution mode in time-of-flight particle detectors in LHC experiments (ALICE TOF) and in low resolution for drift based muon detectors (CMS DT) and a multitude of other experiments at CERN (NA48) and outside CERN (STAR, BES, OKU, KABES, HADES).

Ready for licensing. Small quantities of the HPTDC ASIC are available off the shelf in combination with an exploitation license. Larger quantities may be produced on short term.

Innovative features

  • Time solution programmable from 25ps to 800ps.
  • Between 8 and 32 channels per chip available.
  • Low data volume through event triggered data processing (no continuous data sampling).
Imaging high-performance-time-digital-converterpdf.pdf No
Planned developments: Produced in 0.25µm CMOS technology. 32 input channels. Programmable time resolution between 25ps to 800ps.
Read more
fb3b48fb-5995-4a05-acf2-c24deb3eb647 /sites/ Hood clamshell tool


  • Aeronautics and Space Industry
  • May also be modified for use with Hydrogen systems
  • Vacuum systems leakage test
  • Oil and gas industries - inspection of piping systems
  • Cryogenic systems



  • Tool can be used in complex or restricted places.
  • Quickness of installation and measurement.
  • Easy to use.
  • Adaptability to different diameters of tubes.
  • Single compact unit tool.
  • Self sealing system.

To guarantee the sealing of a joint, junction, pipe or tube, a very precise non-destructive technique with helium is used, which allows detection and measurement of small leaks. This technique provides a low cost option and is made possible through the use of the hood clamshell tool. In the form of a specially designed open ring, this simple tool adapts to each side of the junction permitting detection of leaks using helium. It can be applied to different pipes or joints that vary in diameter and are located in complex restricted places.


Watch the video demonstration of this technology


Ready for licensing. Patented Technology. Granted in France, Europe, and USA. PCT. WO0144773.


  • Tool can fit any kind of seal, from 15mm to 500mm in diameter.
  • Leak detector sensitivity – 10-10mbar.


Innovative features

  • Equipped with a simple/innovative locking mechanism.
  • On-site registration of the helium level measurements.
  • Sealing lips that conform perfectly to the shape of the tube.
  • Leak detector (helium sensor) is connected directly to the capsule.
WO0144773 - Granted in France, Europe, and USA. PCT.
Ready for licensing. Patented Technology. Granted in France, Europe, and USA. PCT. WO0144773.
Technical Domains
Read more
b74f486f-7021-41c5-9c74-62f57cf53e58 /sites/ Indico


The market applicability of the product is extremely wide, being of use to any organisation wishing to implement conference/agenda management software.
It may be used for:
- Event Management; full life-cycle
- Corporate and institutional event data management and archiving
- Professional collaboration hub



- Web-based, fully flexible platform
- Suitable for entire event lifecycle, from pre- to post- conference management
- Multi-platform compatibility (Windows, Mac, Linux)
- Flexible plugins system to integrate the software seamlessly to the corporate/institutional environment

Indico (Integrated Digital Conference: is a web-based, multi-platform, conference lifecycle and agenda management system. It has also become the long-term archiving tool for documents and metadata related to all kinds of events that take place at CERN, and a hub for accessing local and remote collaboration services at CERN. The software is used in production at CERN (hosting > 190,000 events and around 12,000 visitors per day), publicly released under the GPLv3, and installed in more than 100 institutes world-wide.

Publicly released under the GPLv3 (open source software license) No
Publicly released under the GPLv3 (open source software license)
Read more
0df53cbd-ad78-479e-9e6e-0321eb87efd4 /sites/ Integrated CO2 cooling system


Accurate thermal control of distant set-ups with small additional cooling hardware is a common goal in many hi-tech equipment. The easiness of using the Integrated 2PACL makes it ideal for experimental set-ups as its connection is as easy as the use of a normal thermostatic bath, which is often used now.



  • Clean and green technology
  • Small cooling tubes
  • Accurate (isothermal) and direct temperature control on distant experiments
  • CO2 is an inexpensive fluid

The Integrated 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) is a modification of the existing 2PACL system developed for the AMS-Tracker and LHCb-VELO CO2 cooling systems. The integrated 2PACL method is a different way of operating and control the original 2PACL concept. The modification makes the system simpler, more reliable, better to control and cheaper.

Figure 1 shows the integrated 2PACL principle. Here the accumulator cooling is integrated with the internal heat exchanger. The only remaining control of the system is a simple heater control in the accumulator. This makes the new principle easier to use and control. It will also be much cheaper to build.


Related Publications

Verlaat  B., Colijn A.P., “CO2 Cooling Developments for HEP Detectors”, 18th International Workshop on Vertex detectors, Putten, The Netherlands, 2009

Colijn A.P, Verlaat B, “CO2 Cooling for Particle Physics Experiments”, 9th IIF/IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Working Fluids, Sydney, Australia , 2010

Colijn A.P, Verlaat B, “Evaporative CO2 Heat Transfer Measurements for Cooling Systems of Particle Physics Detectors” , HEFAT-2010, 7th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Antalya, Turkey, 2010


Patent application filed. integrated-co2-cooling-systempdf.pdf No
Patent application filed.
Read more
bb353a83-81d6-4c14-b36d-4a7f698750f5 /sites/ Invenio


  • Digital library server
  • Institutional document repository
  • Multimedia document archive
  • Administrative document management



  • Navigable collection tree
    • Documents organized in collections
    • Regular and virtual collection trees
  • Powerful search engine
    • Specially designed indexes to provide Google-like search speeds for repositories of up to 10.000.000 records
    • Customizable simple and advanced search interfaces
    • Combined metadata, fulltext and citation search in one go
  • Flexible metadata
    • Standard metadata format (MARC)
    • Handling articles, books, theses, photos, videos, museum objects and more
    • Customizable batch imports and web submission lines
    • Customizable output display and linking rules



  • Dependent on the level of customization, configuration may at first be difficult to novice administrators
  • Web application server must run on Unix-like operating system.
  • Best suited for large document repositories (e.g. > 10 000 records)

Invenio, the integrated digital library and repository system, is a suite of applications which provides the framework and tools for building and managing an autonomous digital library server. The technology offered by the software covers all aspects of digital library management. It complies with the Open Archives Initiative metadata harvesting protocol (OAI-PMH) and uses MARC 21 as its underlying bibliographic standard. Its flexibility and performance make it a comprehensive solution for the management of document repositories of moderate to large size.

At CERN, Invenio is used for:


The software is readily available to anyone, as it is free software, licensed under the GNU General Public Licence (GPL).

Innovative features

  • Multiple parallel level of collections & sub-collections
  • Google-like search with additional options of combined meta data, citation and full text search
inveniopdf.pdf No
Latest release: Invenio v1.0.0, released 2012-02-2
Read more
d5cab66d-c846-4646-b21b-5edb1581f6af /sites/ KiCad EDA Software Suite


  • Design of PCBs

  • Educational tool to teach real-life electronics



  • Rich set of open-source libraries including 3D Models

  • Three step approach in PCB design via independent interconnected modules.

  • All KiCad files are in ASCII. Facilitates manual manipulation and scripting. No vendor lock in.

  • Extensive documentation

  • GPL v.2 licence

KiCad is an EDA (Electronic Design Automation) software suite for the creation of professional schematics and printed circuit boards up to 32 copper layers with additional technical layers. KiCad runs on Windows, Linux and Apple OS X and is released under open-source licence. KiCad is a mature EDA software tool under continuous development. It has a core development team and a dynamic and growing user community contributing regularly.


Released under open-source licence kicad-eda-software-suitepdf.pdf No
Released under open-source licence
Read more
79d07079-75d5-4775-9e0c-f9f6a95c9d75 /sites/ Kryolize


  • Valve manufacturers
  • Cryoplant manufacturers and design offices
  • Cryogenic systems at research laboratories
  • Cryogenic gas suppliers
  • Scientific Community


  • Promotes methodology standardisation
  • Ensures safe practice in cryogenic systems handling
  • Based on international standards
  • Time-saving 


Kryolize is a software tool for sizing the minimum discharge area of a safety protection device, against overpressure. Based on international (ISO), European (EN) and American (API) standards, Kryolize allows calculation and sizing of safety valves for cryogenic systems and is a novel tool that will help engineers with a uniform approach in the sizing of safety valves for cryogenics applications.


No Read more
1aae890a-4f69-4ad8-8952-ad7574e8cf23 /sites/ Long-distance motor driver


  • All applications requiring precise and reliable positioning over long distances, especially in harsh environments (radioactive, underwater, high temperatures, etc.)
  • Applications requiring high levels of both drive and mechanical diagnostics & monitoring (e.g. load torque monitoring).


  • So far, the technology has only been manufactured in limited quantities for CERN’s scientific programme. The unit cost associated with high volume production would need to be determined.
  • Currently the driver hardware is limited to motors with a maximum current of 10A and 120V DC supply.

For the needs of its scientific programme, CERN has developed a unique motor driver capable of highly repeatable positioning from a remote location up to 1000 metres away.

The technology can deliver reliable positioning with low mechanical overshoot and low vibration using any length of power cable up to 1000 metres. These features make it particularly well suited for remote applications, such as cabled inspection robots, in harsh environments where there are safety risks for direct human intervention, e.g. radioactive areas, underwater infrastructures, high temperature environments, etc.

The device can also drive Stepper Motors or DC Motors (brushed or brushless) meaning that only one driver can be used for many applications.

When operating as a stepper motor driver, the motor driver can operate in either standard micro-stepping mode or in a closed-loop position control mode if a position sensor is available. In the event of a sensor failure, it is capable of switching online from closed-loop position control to stepper mode without changing position.

When operating as a brushed DC motor driver, a single driver can drive two motors reading a different encoder for each.

The technology has been validated in CERN’s highly demanding environment and is currently deployed in the critical application of the LHC beam crystal collimators.

  • Provides highly repeatable positioning from remote locations up to 1000m away.
  • Smooth operation with low vibration.
  • Capable of driving stepper motors and DC motors (brushed and brushless).
  • Can operate in either micro-stepping mode or in a closed-loop position control mode if a position sensor is available.
  • Provides continuous operation in the event of a sensor failure by switching online from closed-loop position control to stepper mode without changing position.
  • "Step-less" motion mode (smooth motion profile automatically generated through interpolation of step inputs).
  • Provides sensored or sensorless load estimation using available measurement inputs. Comparing the values using these two methods can also be very useful for monitoring the mechanical health of the system, including any degradation of the mechanics over time.  
  • Superior system diagnosis by acquisition of the most important operational parameters, such as current, position, etc. (e.g. by acquiring the status of limit and homing switches).
  • Provides automatic current controller tuning.
  • Ability to perform customised trajectory profiles defined by position and timestamp arrays.
  • Automatic generation of trapezoidal speed profiles, if desired.
  • Profinet interface.
  • Ability to update drive firmware serially.
  • Can be incorporated into a large-scale, multi-axis control system (acting as a slave to a master controller) or it can be used as a standalone position controller.
Additional know-how and Technologies long-distance-motor-driverpdf.pdf No
Technical Domains
Read more
24b5d51a-eaa6-4ff1-8c06-f826c441f293 /sites/ Magnet Power Supplies


Short Pulse Magnet Power Supplies: 

  • Powering conventional magnets (bumpers, quadrupoles, dipole).
  • Powering septum magnets.
  • Powering particles sources.

4-Quadrant Magnet Power Supplies:

  • Powering any kind of conventional magnets or superconducting magnets.

CERN has developed a family of short Pulse Power Supplies with very stringent specifications for the needs of particle accelerators such as Linacs, particles sources or injection systems. These power supplies are used to power conventional magnets, septum magnets, heating system of particles sources.

The 4-Quadrant Magnet Power Supplies have very stringent specifications for the needs of particle accelerators such as linacs, synchrotrons, cyclotrons, as well as particle sources. These power supplies are used to power any kind of magnet.

The Short Pulse Magnet Power Supplies are developed for the needs of particle accelerators such as linacs, particle sources or injection systems. These power supplies are used to power conventional magnets, septum magnets, heating systems of particle sources.

Both types of magnet power supplies are controlled using the FGC control system (Function Generator Controller developed at CERN). The FGC control system covers embedded controls hardware and software, as well as protocols for communication with the higher levels of the accelerator control systems. CERN has developed a software layer to ease integration with the EPICS framework. A similar software layer for the TANGO framework is currently under development. Both frameworks will be able to support FGC. In addition, remote software tools for monitoring and performance analysis are available for diagnostics.

Five types of 4-quadrant magnet power supplies are available for transfer to industry, as well as five types of short pulse magnet power supplies. For details, see specifications below. 

Complete manufacturing folders are available for production and can be licensed to interested parties.

CERN CERN Manufacturing folders available

4-Quadrant Magnet Power Supplies:

Short Pulse Magnet Power Supplies:

Other current levels can be obtain by adding a pulse transformer in series with the magnet.

Imaging short-pulse-magnet-power-suppliespdf.pdf, 4-quadrant-magnet-power-suppliespdfpdf0.pdf, magnet-power-supplies-posterpdfpdf.pdf, cancun-converter-datasheetpdfpdf.pdf, cute-converter-datasheetpdfpdf.pdf, macao-converter-datasheetpdfpdf.pdf No
Technical Domains
Read more
efdac91f-de49-4330-b80d-4e6ce08c11e4 /sites/ MEDICIS

CERN-MEDICIS (Medical Isotopes Collected from ISOLDE) is a unique facility that will use proton beams from ISOLDE, CERN's nuclear physics facility (which is 50 years old this year) solely for the purpose of producing non-conventional radioisotopes for medical research. These will be shipped for use in hospitals and research centres in Switzerland and across Europe.

Radioisotopes are already widely used by the medical community, for imaging, diagnostics and radiation therapy. However many of the isotopes currently in use are not entirely suitable for the imaging process nor can they target tumours accurately enough. CERN-MEDICIS which entered the commissioning phase in September aims at producing weekly batches of a huge range of innovation isotopes that more accurately meet the needs of medical professionals. Full production will start in 2018.

CERN Radioisotopes
Method For Production Of Radioisotope Preparations And Their Use In Life Science, Research, Medical Application And Industry
Year Filed
Technical Domains
Read more
c5e9f3a9-327a-4543-bf7c-a3c006d7ee53 /sites/ Medipix2


  • Life Sciences
  • Digital Autoradiography
  • Astrophysics
  • Various X-ray and gamma-ray imaging applications
  • Neutron imaging
  • Diffraction analysis


  • Count of photons within a given energy region
  • High maximum count rates, allowing for high intensity illumination up to the order of 0.4 GHz/mm2
  • High sensitivity, large dynamic range and low contrast detectability, exceeding present charge integrating techniques; dose reduction is a consequence of these features
  • Noise-free
  • No sensitivity to dark currents, allowing for long exposure times under very low intensity illumination
  • High-speed imaging and readout - 20 frames per second.

The Medipix2 ASIC is a high spatial, high contrast resolving CMOS pixel read-out chip working in single photon counting mode. It can be combined with different semiconductor sensors which convert the X-rays directly into detectable electric signals. This represents a new solution for various X-ray and gamma-ray imaging applications.

The core concept of the Medipix2 chip was originally invented for pattern recognition in tracing of particles in the LHC. Since then the technological platform has evolved and is being developed in different application specific directions.


CERN Medipix Collaborations


  • Pixel size: 55 micrometers
  • Chip size: 256x256 pixels
  • Active area: 1.4x1.4cm
  • Couting rate: 1MHz
  • Energy range: from 3keV upwards
  • Imaging rate: 20 frames per second


The chip is limited to 256x256 pixels (1.4x1.4m). However, the chip is 3-side buttable so an array of 2xn chips is feasible. For instance, a detector comprising of four Medipix2 chips gives an acgive area of 2.8x2.8cm.


Innovative Features:

  • The chip is designed to accept either positive or negative charge input
  • A window of energy can be selected through the pixelwise adjustment of upper and lower threshold
  • Pixel size reduced to 55 microns
Imaging medipix2pdf.pdf No Read more
c6635a52-9f71-4566-851a-5db20589e93b /sites/ Medipix3


  • Pixel size 55μm x 55μm or 110μm x 110μm
  • 256 x 256  or 128 x 128 pixels
  • Charge summing and allocation scheme – mitigating charge sharing
  • 2 thresholds per 55mm pixel each with 5 bits of local adjustment
  • High gain mode (HG, lower linearity, lower noise) or low gain mode (LG)
  • Configurable counter depths: 2 x 1-bit, 2 x 4-bit, 2 x 12-bit, 1 x 24-bit
  • Continuous or sequential data acquisition and readout
  • 3-side buttable (with a single 0.8mm dead edge)
  • TSV ready



  • Adaptive optics and other visible or near visible light applications
  • Astrophysics
  • Background radiation monitoring
  • Digital Autoradiography
  • Dosimetry
  • Education
  • Electron microscopy
  • Life Sciences 
  • Neutron imaging
  • Various X-ray and gamma-ray imaging applications
  • X-ray polarimetry measurements

Medipix3 is a CMOS pixel detector readout chip designed to be connected to a segmented semiconductor sensor. Like its predecessor, Medipix2, it acts as a camera taking images based on the number of particles which hit the pixels when the electronic shutter is open. However, Medipix3 goes much further than Medipix2 permitting colour imaging and dead time free operation. A novel charge summing and allocation scheme is implemented at the pixel level permitting proper binning of the energy of incoming photons overcoming the effects of fluorescence and charge diffusion. As there are 2 counters in each 55μm pixel the chip can be programmed such that one counter is being read out while the other is counting. It is also possible to connect the chip to a sensor matrix with a pitch of 110μm. In this way, up to 8 counters are available per pixel.

Ready for licensing
CMOS technology0.13 μm
Pixel size55μm x 55μm
Pixel matrix256 x 256


Analog front end (pixel cell)
Signal polarityPositive and negative
Leakage current-10nA to +20nA
Time to peak120ns

80 e- (SPM)

175 e- (CSM)

Threshold variation (after tuning)35 e- rms
Minimum operating treshold700 e-


Digital part (pixel cell + periphery)
Configurable counter depths

2 x 1-bit

2 x 4-bit

2 x 12-bit

1 x 24-bit

25 DACs (10 9-bit and 15 8-bit) to set voltages in the chip 
LVDS drivers and receivers (configuration of the chip in serial mode) 
Parallel data port configurable to 1, 2, 4 or 8 LVDS lines 
Readout time 8 parallel LVDS lines (200 MHz clock, 12 bit counters)491μs
Continuous Read/Write YES
Hit rate 28 - 826 Mcounts/mm2/s depending on configuration 
Total analog power consumption (nominal conditions)440mW
Total digital power consumption (@100MHz)450mW
Imaging medipix3pdf.pdf No Read more
848a3a24-990b-43fc-882a-c986eb617cdc /sites/ Micro Chemical Vias


  • Microelectronics
  • PCBs industry



  • Vias of several possible dimensions from microns to centimeters
  • Initial fabrication investment to use method is low
  • Vias of any shape (circle, star, square, etc) can be produced and standardized
  • Process or method compatible with all standard PC assembly lines

Previous methods to produce microvias are based on complex technologies such as laser, plasma or photo imaging. Chemical Via is a new chemical method to make microvias for high density printed multilayer circuits. Microvias are used to interconnect adjacent layers and consist of a small diameter hole (usually 70µm) with a thin metallic deposit covering their cylindrical walls to ensure the local conductivity between the bottom and top layers. Microvias of any shapes and dimensions are made possible at a low production costs. The technology was used by CERN PCB manufacturing workshop for the production of PCboards for HEP needs.


Ready for licensing. Patented technology, WO03055288.


  • Etching time (9-18 min)
  • An isotropic Etching technique (Deep reactive ion etching) is used
  • Minimum via diameter (40µm)


Innovative features

  • Easy elimination of elements (e.g. glue) by dissolving using a chemical process.
  • Kapton carving by using a sequence of simple chemical baths.
Patent: WO03055288.
Technical Domains
Read more
5e71f6b5-32c6-4b18-ae5d-d1f60c5fe381 /sites/ Micro-scintillation particle detector for hadrontherapy


The microscint detector technology was initially developed for high energy physics applications, but has great potential for online beam monitoring in hadrontherapy, as a cancer treatment. The device will provide the required resolution, whilst being significantly thinner with respect to those currently in use in state-of-the-art technologies. This allows for the previously unavailable online beam monitoring.


  • Online beam monitoring whilst treating the patient allows for previously unavailable characterisation of beam profile and measurement of the intensity and dose of radiation administered
  • Potential to maximise treatment efficacy
  • Suitable for hadron and heavy ion beam monitoring
  • Fully radiation hard
  • Overall, it will provide unprecedented characterisation of the irradiation received by patients

The technology is a novel type of particle detector based on scintillation, with precise spatial resolution and radiation hardness.

The particle detector device consists of a single microfluidic channel filled with a liquid scintillator, which is designed to define an array of optically separated scintillating waveguides, each independently coupled to a photo-detector.  The device is housed within the patient treatment apparatus, positioned to intercept the beam line. During online treatment, the particle beam passes through the device and particles interact with the scintillant in the micro-channels to produce a luminous event/flash of light, which is captured by photo-detectors and recorded.

Related Publications

- Mapelli et al., Development and Studies of Novel Microfabricated Radiation Hard Scintillation Detectors With High Spatial Resolution, IEEE TNS 58 (2011) 1177-1180
- Mapelli et al., Scintillation Particle Detection Based on Microfluidics, Sens Act. A 162 (2010) 272-275
- Mapelli et al., Novel Radiation Hard Microfabricated Scinitllation Detectors with High Spatial Resolution, Nucl. Instr. And Meth. A 617 (2010) 400-401

Radiation and Hadron therapy micro-scintillation-particle-detector-hadron-therapy-pdf.pdf
Patent application filed. PCT/EP2012/001980.
Technical Domains
Read more
3a612523-627a-4400-b3b1-31f187d548f7 /sites/ Mounting mechanism for cantilever with high precision positioning


This invention can be applied to any cantilever or group of cantilevers that needs to be held in a predefined position given by reference surfaces, in particular when fixed inside a vacuum or pressure vessel and aligned with high precision. Initially the primary application is for Drift Tubes (DT) in Drift Tube LINACs (DTLs).



  • The mounting mechanism allows installing an elongate element to a structure quickly and reliable without adjustment after assembly
  • De- and re-installation is straightforward and precise
  • The use of metal seals instead of rubber seals makes their application radiation hard and thus reliable
  • No adjustment after assembly is needed. Accidental movements related to this operation are made impossible

The invention generally relates to a mounting mechanism for mounting an elongate element to a holding structure. The new invention solves the problem of precisely mounting a cantilever to a structure in a vaccum tight, radiation hard way, where no further alignments are needed. One particular application, and the reason for the developments at CERN is to use such mounting mechanisms to mount and precisely position drift tubes in a linear accelerator.


Ready for licensing. Patented technology (PCT). CERN may provide knowledge transfer support and consultancy.

Innovative features

  • Precision obtained through innovative design and precise machining.
  • Seal in metal: In Radio Frequency cavities metal seals provide for the continuity of the vacuum and the RF envelope at the same time. Using metal seals improves the long-term reliability of the assembly. It replaces previous solutions based on bellows or rubber seals
  • The mounting mechanism provides the required longitudinal forces compressing the metal seal to make it leak tight and it avoids transversal forces that could lead to unwanted deformations.​
mounting-mechanism-cantilever-high-precision-positioningpdf.pdf No
Ready for licensing. Patented technology (PCT). CERN may provide knowledge transfer support and consultancy.
Read more
05ef25e2-73fd-4388-b4d3-3951a4a6d543 /sites/ NINO


Photon and electron detection at very high rates in medical imaging, life science and material research

CERN has available a low power front-end amplifier discriminator ASIC chip for use in applications based on electron and photon detecting in medical imaging, life science or material research. This so-called NINO ASIC allows for an 8-channel input signal charge measurement through encoding discriminator pulse width with excellent timing resolution at very high rate, while at the same time providing a very low noise performance and power consumption characteristics per channel.

This ASIC was developed by the LAA project at CERN and is used for time-of-flight measurements for particle vertex reconstruction in the ALICE experiment of the LHC collider.


Available off the shelf for licensing or can be produced on short term. Upon request, CERN provides support and pre-configured solutions for the integration of such chips with user specific detectors and mechanical support structures.


  • Channels: 8
  • Voltage supply: 2.5V
  • Peaking time: 1ns
  • Input signal range: 30fC - 2pC
  • Noise:
  • Discriminator threshold: 10fC - 100fC
  • Timing precision:
  • Output: LVDS


Innovative features

  • Compact packaging through 0.25µm CMOS technology (fits in a 2x4 mm2 area)
  • Adjustable discriminator thresholds
  • Adjustable 50 ohm input resistance
  • 27mW power consumption per channel
  • Front end time jitter
  • Sustains very high rate (>>10MHz)
Imaging ninopdf.pdf No
Available off the shelf for licensing or can be produced on short term. Upon request, CERN provides support and pre-configured solutions for the integration of such chips with user specific detectors and mechanical support structures.
Technical Domains
Read more
895fa283-0a67-4ea9-b174-0a2ca8feb00f /sites/ OrthoPix Data compression


  • Medical/Material imaging
  • Electron microscopy
  • Laser beam/light beam position sensing
  • High speed and resolution tracking/aiming devices
  • Analog PSD (Position Sensitive Device) replacement
  • There are a number of detectors/areas where we believe the architecture could have an impact, but more work is needed to correctly evaluate this. Examples of this are Gas Electron Multiplier or GEM detectors, Single Photon Avalanche Diodes or SPADs used in PET.


  • Low power (2), fast (
  • When efficiency drops hits are not lost, but remain available for tracking.
  • Flexible: double threshold for cluster tagging, further periphery compression
  • For the acquisition of sparsely populated images, the major advantages are the high spatial and time resolution plus the extremely low power consumption. The proposed technology uses a very simple pixel cell implementation, making it possible to realize small (10 by 10 microns) pixels and hence provide high spatial resolution.
  • The compression factor remains constant respect the number of hit elements in the detector, providing a constant data flux independent of the incoming signals and allowing for a much easier and less power hungry control electronic and data handling.
  • The low power consumption is another key point in all those application where:
    - Power reserve is a concern (portable devices, airborne/space application)
    - Power distribution is a problem (very large devices/detectors)
    - Power dissipation is a problem (cryogenic detector, in vacuum detectors, etc.)
    - Cooling is driving parameter of the system.
  • Furthermore, for the acquisition of light spots position like in the PSD case, the intrinsically digital approach allows for a much lower signal to be employed and to get a position resolution independent from the signal strength (as long as it is detectable). This also mean that the device is much more resistant to the environmental noise which spoils the resolution of an analogue device even when a strong signal is applied.
  • The ability to handle more than one hit per frame also makes the device much more suitable for all these applications where multiple hits per frame actually occur.
  • The new frontend provides a relatively simple and very compact solution which preserves the low capacitance of the detecting element, and maintains a small pixel size. This would really be important for monolithic detectors.
  • Another advantage of the present direct addressing mechanism is its (in principle) perfect robustness against multiple hits. While this is true in theory, in every practical application the limited size of the buffers renders this robustness not absolute, even if in general anyway better than the one offered by the proposed technology.


  • Fixed maximum hits rate, related to pixel count.
  • Optimized for few pixels clusters, needs simulations for real clusters.
  • Assumes uniform hits distribution. To be verified versus real physics events.
OrthoPix is a method and system for compressing data arranged in a data array, and frontend readout circuits.
The proposed mapping and readout technology provides a compression factor which is independent from the number of hit elements on the detector, roughly ranging from N/2 to N/4 for the preferred implementation, where N is the side size of a reference detector made by N2 sensitive elements. By reducing the total amount of data to be extracted from the detector, the proposed technology allows to increase the frame rate of the same amount, given a constant data bandwidth capability. This makes it possible to time-slice the incoming data, allowing to reconstruct the final image as a superimposition of single hits instead of an integrated image, increasing both spatial resolution and image structure information (time information is also available).


Related Publications


Z. Li, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 518 (2004), 738 – 753
N. Wermes, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 541 (2005) 150 – 165
R. Horisberger, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 288 (1990) 87 – 91
S. Avrillon et al., Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 386 (1997) 172 – 176

Imaging orthopix-data-compressionpdf.pdf
Patent application filed. The technology is based on already existent commercial technologies.
No Read more
1f24dba6-86dd-4539-a19c-6a8a17f2dbcb /sites/ PHOSWICH


  • Medical Imaging
  • Biology
  • Life sciences


For the domain of biology and medical imaging, it is currently marketed by Raytest France in ClearPET©, a PET scanner machine for studies on small animals.

To overcome limitations in spatial resolution of gamma cameras, the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN has developed and patented a technology for a gamma camera based on a double layer LSO/LuYAP crystal detector (PHOSWICHconfiguration). In combination with common position sensitive read out devices such as photomultipliers and APDs, this setup offers a depth-of-interaction (DOI) reconstruction of the impact point of the incident photon by signal shape analysis.


This technology was developed and patented in the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN and available for licensing.

Innovative features

  • Reconstruction of DOI (depth of interaction) of the incident photon through a double layer LSO/LuYAP crystals in phoswich configuration
  • High sensitivity
  • High spatial resolution
Imaging phoswishpdf.pdf No
This technology was developed and patented in the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN and available for licensing.
Read more
1f85544e-3c1a-4529-84e8-95807fd17131 /sites/ QF-Lib


  • Financial data analysis, more specifically:
  • Time series Analysis
  • Charting
  • Portfolio Construction
  • Research in Investment Strategies
  • Studies, Market Indicators and Analysis


  • Frequency of the data. The current version does not support intraday scenarios.
  • Supported asset classes. The current version does not support backtesting of investment products based on the term structure like Futures, or Fixed Income.

QF-Lib is a Python library that provides high quality tools for quantitative finance. Among the features, there are modules for portfolio construction, time series analysis, risk monitoring and a diverse charting package. The library provides extensive functionality for financial data analysis in addition to a wide variety of tools for data processing and presentation of the results.

QF-Lib is a convenient environment for conducting your own analysis. The results are presented in a practical form including a variety of charts and statistical measures. 

An extensive part of the libraries is dedicated to backtesting investment strategies. The Backtester uses an event-driven architecture and simulates the events such as daily market opening or closing. Thanks to the architecture based on interfaces, it is easily to customise. Tested strategies may consist of different alpha models, position-sizing techniques, risk management settings and specify commission pricing or slippage models. After testing a strategy on historical data, the user can apply it to a trading environment without any modifications.

  • Flexible data sourcing. Financial data source can be any commercial data provider or a local database.
  • Tools to prevent lookback of ‘future data’ in the becktesting environment.
  • Adapted data containers. Custom time-indexed data structures facilitating the processing of financial data.
  • Generation of analyses summaries. Automatic generation of content rich analysis documents.
  • Flexible financial ‘multi-tool’ environment allowing for extension and creation of new functionality
  • Permissive Open source licence. QF-Lib is distributed under Apache v2.0 licence
Additional know-how and Technologies qf-libpdfpdf0.pdf No Read more
57506b45-39b2-4bc5-8df6-7193e0d7c68b /sites/ Quantum dosimetry


Market segments are those where combined information from dose, type of particles, and biological effect are of interest. The market for normal dosimeters focuses on key radiation, such as gamma and beta, but might be interested in the Quantum Dosimeter if its properties and cost are competitive. Therefore, the technology can find its applications in the following areas:

  • Healthcare
  • Homeland security
  • High-Energy Physics
  • Real time active dosimeter for Space
  • Cost attractive alternative to Germanium detectors


  • The Quantum Dosimeter gives the dose, dose rate and the real biological effect of radiation with a very high accuracy, in real time
  • It can detect radiation from one or more of the following categories: photons, beta-particles, alpha-particles, delta-particles, protons, minimum ionizing energetic ions, fission fragments and neutrons
  • It detects every quantum of the radiation, which means it has the best possible sensitivity
  • When integrated with a Medipix chip it offers a small and lightweight device, such as the size of a USB memory stick
  • Such a device will have low power consumption and could be battery powered

Quantum Dosimetry is a novel invention comprising a method, software and apparatus to determine dose, dose rate and composition of radiation. The Quantum Dosimeter can identify and categorize the individual radiation quanta by recognizing the patterns of the particles detected using a silicon pixel detector such as Medipix or Timepix. The method allows separation of different constituents of radiation, such as electrons, photons, alpha particles, neutrons, ions, muons, and others. It can also determine an energy estimate of the total deposited energy for each of the detected radiation quanta and then compute the contribution of each radiation category to the total effective radiation dose. The invention was made in the framework of the Medipix 2 Collaboration.

The technology is being used for measuring radiation in the ATLAS cavern.



Intellectual Property status


  • Technology jointly owned by CERN and Czech Technical University. PCT application filed in 2007
  • Prototypes of the Quantum Dosimeter have been built and testing of the invention is being done in the LHC tunnel
  • Licenses and know-how on the Quantum Dosimetry can be offered
Dosimetry quantum-dosimetrypdf.pdf No
Technical Domains
Read more
2c09054f-de9d-4688-88ef-bd9929ef2432 /sites/ Quasar framework - OPC-UA server generation


OPC-UA servers for controlling and monitoring:

  • Industrial power supplies sourced from commercial vendors;

  • Custom made, radiation tolerant data concentrator devices;

  • VME crates, housing custom built electronics;

  • Prototype Raspberry Pi (ARM) based servers;

  • Other applications include servers for:

    • embedding on Internet of Things (IoT) devices;

    • gateways to proprietary communication protocols;

    • creating a single unified connectivity interface to a sub-system of inter-related devices and systems.



  • Standards based: Leverages the benefits of the OPC-UA industri- al standard. Any OPC-UA compliant client can be used to control and monitor any device or system;

  • Speeds up both vertical (device orientated) and horizontal (peer to peer) system integration developments.

  • Supports embedded and low powered processor systems as im- plemented by the OPC-UA standard;

  • Target system agnostic. The framework can be used to build in- dustrial standards based integration components for any device. 

Open Platform Communications Unified Architecture (henceforth OPC-UA) is a machine to machine communication protocol (middleware) for industrial automation developed by the OPC Foundation based on a client/server model. OPC-UA is widely used across diverse industry and research fields for integrating a wide variety of hardware devices and interconnecting systems. The quasar framework helps reduce the cost of developing and maintaining OPC-UA integration components (servers) through model driven code generation and re-use of common, OPC-UA related, code.

Development of a specific device OPC-UA server, starts with creation of a design file, in XML, describing an object-oriented information model of the target system or device. Using this model, the framework generates an executable OPC-UA server, which exposes the per-design OPC-UA interface. This interface can be consumed by any OPC-UA compliant client. All this is accomplished without the need to write a single line of code. In addition, the framework generates skeleton code into which the developer adds the specific logic required to integrate to the target device or system. This approach allows for fast development and enables both novice and expert OPC-UA developers to focus on the integration aspects of the project, delegating the complexities of working with the OPC-UA standard to the quasar framework. 

Open Source Software Nikiel et al (2015) quasar-frameworkpdf.pdf No Read more
f9344b42-69ec-45a7-94ec-ba9182514d03 /sites/ Radon detector with high gas gain, operable in high humidity

Possible applications

The developed structure can be used as a gas electron multiplier in a cheap detector of Rn, operating in on line mode (such a device can be used for earthquake prediction and as a very sensitive detector of dangerous gases). Compared to ionization chambers, the structure is operat­ing in gas avalanche mode offering much better signal to noise ratios. It can detect Rn decay as well as its progenies 214 Po and 218 Po. In this detector the negatively charged electrode (drift electrode) can be easily replaced, which allows starting new measurements almost immediately. By tuning the drift field between the drift electrode and the structure, one can detect either Rn+ or Rn only.



The structure is produced by the same technology as TGEM and RETGEMs. However, due to the feature of its design (aligned holes without walls), the leakage current is fully eliminated. Due to the absence of the interference from the hole walls, at least ten times higher gas gains can be achieved compared to TGEM and RETGEM, and up to 100 times more compared to GEM and MICROMEGAS. If required, the structure can be produced with hole size and thickness close to classical GEMs.



The holes need to be aligned and the distance between plates equal or close to hole diameter, which can be complicated in the case of very small holes and pitch. The same applies to the spacers. However, in some cases the anode can be without holes, simplifying the production.

The “wall-less” GEM-type structure is capable of stable operation and high gas gain in humid ambient air and in photosensitive vapours including, TMAE. It operates similarly to classical GEMs, namely avalanche multiplication in the region of a strong electric field, located between aligned holes of the plates. However, since these multiplication regions (in contrast to ordinary GEMs, TGEMS or RETGEMs) do not have any walls, there is no leakage current due to the humidity or other liquid layer (for example TMAE) adsorbed on the hole surface. Spacers are located in special areas and far away from the holes. They have special shapes that fully prevent any leakage current. Some materials commonly used in RETGEM/TGEM construction, for example PCB (or G-10), adsorb water, thus their resistivity may change with time and this may affect the stability of the detector operation. A special protective coating should be applied to such materials to prevent this. An important feature of this structure is that it can operate at gas gains much higher than GEM, TGEM or RETGEM. If necessary, the structure can also be exploited in cascaded mode or be combined with another detector.



G. Charpak et al., IEEE Nucl Sci., 55, 1657, 2008

G. Charpak, JINST 3 P02006, 2008

G. Charpak et al., arXiv:1002.4732


International patent application filed; PCT/EP2013/000887. rn-detectorpdf.pdf No
International patent application filed; PCT/EP2013/000887.
Read more
6c602f68-559c-4f6b-84bd-f46514d61272 /sites/ RadShip



The tool provides a reliable and resilient system with many QA features, automatic notifications and reminders, and ensures full traceability. It replaces paperwork with electronic data and manual phone calls with automatic email notifications.

In addition, it provides a comprehensive answer to all legal requirements, improving the efficiency and reliability of radioactive material shipments whilst ensuring reactivity and decreasing potential errors. RADShip’s architecture limits the dependencies to the CERN environment so that the software is easy to integrate in another environment. The effort required for this task is estimated to be in the order of few weeks including installation and customization.



• Web application uses a local database back-end that ensures full data security and control.

• Automatic mechanism simplifies tasks, prevents errors and enhances users’ experience.

• Locking mechanism minimizes errors and fully meets regulatory requirements.

• Quality assurance and tracking system. All transactions and interactions with the application are time and name stamped.

• Automatic generation of regulatory shipping documents minimizes errors and improves efficiency.

• The application is easy to customize and adapt to most software environments.



• Some customization is necessary before the application is operational in another environment.

• The calculations for the definition of the transport classification are not within the scope of the RADship application.

• Currently, the application only handles Class 7 radioactive material, but can be extended to other classes. The required time and effort for this needs to be assessed on a case-by-case basis. For further information please refer to the KT contact in this document.


RADShip is a comprehensive software package that efficiently manages all aspects of shipping radioactive materials, except for the calculations for classifying the material. It fulfils, and in many areas exceeds, the IAEA Specific Safety Requirements SSR-6 [3] that states that “a management system based on international, national or other standards acceptable to the competent authority shall be established and implemented for all activities within the scope of the Regulations, as identified in paragraph 106, to ensure compliance with the relevant provisions of these Regulations {…}”.

In matters of shipping radioactive material, RADShip complies with the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (Rev.18 2013); the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (2013); the US Code of Federal Regulations Part.49 (2014); and the Dangerous Goods Regulations from IATA (2014).

The RADShip application has a local database back-end and a web interface for user interaction. It was developed to fulfil CERN’s needs in managing radioactive shipments and is part of CERN’s overall management system for shipping of dangerous goods.


Areas of expertise

• Radiation protection

• Management of transport of dangerous goods




Yann Donjoux & Gérald Dumont (CERN- Radiation Protection Group). For more information refer to the KT contact in this document.


Intellectual Property Status

The software rights are exclusively owned by CERN, but the software is available under academic and commercial licence. For more information refer to the KT contact in this document.

radshippdf.pdf No
Technical Domains
Read more
bd12785d-dafb-4e03-80fe-da18d48ee911 /sites/ Rapid bellows compression tool


  • HVAC piping systems
  • Vacuum and High-vacuum Technology
  • General Engineering
  • Bellows Used as Couplings
  • Solar Technology
  • Slip Ring Seal Fittings
  • Shaft Seals
  • Volume/Pressure Compensation



  • Fast installation, the new system is one piece
  • Holds on the entire circumference of the bellow
  • Uniform compression of the bellow
  • Three different ways of manipulation to obtain compression/expansion



The new system may require more space compared to existing solutions.

Where fast, easy and precise installation/removal of metallic bellows is needed, typically in series installation and preventive maintenance operations, the rapid bellow compression tool is used.

This technique allows fast axial compression/expansion of bellows using two concentric articulated collars permitting quick opening and closing around the bellow. Due to synchronized rotation of four threaded rods, the two articulated collars move parallel one to the other. The operator originates the rotation using serrated rollers, a crank or a motor.

It can be adapted to different bellows that vary in shape and diameter, located in poor accessibility areas or requiring controlled compression and precise mounting.



Patented technology - EP 12179567. Ready for licensing.


  • Tool can fit almost any kind of bellow


Innovative Features

  • Articulated collars surrounds the bellow
  • Articulated collars move parallel one to the other
  • Operated using serrated rollers, a crank or a motor
Patented technology - EP 12179567.
Patented technology - EP 12179567. Ready for licensing.
Technical Domains
Read more
993622ea-cc3c-45ca-be84-c8a675b6b0a4 /sites/ REMUS


·  Environmental and radiation monitoring of any facilities.

·  Integration of heterogeneous instrumentation in a centralized and distributed supervisory system.

REMUS is a Supervision, Control and Data Acquisition system (SCADA), able to monitor and control organizations’ impact on their environment. It has been developed by CERN HSE Unit, who is in charge of providing Radiation Protection and Environmental Impact Monitoring to CERN facilities and immediate surroundings. REMUS took advantage of more than 30 years of experience providing safety systems to CERN. It is based on Siemens WinCC Open Architecture.

REMUS provides a unified way to supervise and continuously operate heterogeneous types of instrumentation. It currently offers out-of-the-box interfacing to more than 75 device types and provides software tools easing the integration of new ones, in a time and cost effective way.

REMUS provides the following functionalities:

·   Data acquisition and archiving of measurements and events coming from the instrumentation.

·   Display of near real-time measurements, alarms and operational states of instrumentation through customisable user interfaces composed of synoptic, widgets and alarm screens.

·   Remote sending of commands and operational parameters to the instrumentation.

·   Display of archived and near real-time measurements and events coming from the instrumentation, through a data visualisation tool, ERGO (Environment and Radiation Graphic Observer).

·   Publishing of archived and near real-time measurements to external systems.

·   Run-time installation of new instrumentation.

REMUS at CERN is used by more than 200 users (CERN Control Centre, RP & Environmental Experts, Fire Brigade, …), providing 600 synoptic screens, 50,000 remotely controlled parameters, 3,200 data streams and archiving 100,000,000 measurements every day.

REMUS has been designed to be as scalable and adaptable as possible, allowing its installation in a different environment than CERN, in a few days.





IP Status

CERN Proprietary license

CERN PCaPAC 2018: CERN Supervision Control and Data Acquisition System for Radiation…, PCaPAC 2018: Innovative Graphical User Interfaces Development: Give the Power b…, ICALEPCS 2015: REMUS: The new CERN Radiation and Environment Monitoring Unified… remuspdfpdf.pdf No Read more
4c424bba-52da-4161-a9d3-bd6865deb066 /sites/ Resistive MicroMegas


The use of the ceramic structure could permit the fabrication of a seal detector which is a must for many industrial applications: industrial fluorescence, radiology, UV photodetector.


  • Electronics protection
  • Seal detector
  • Compatibility with any readout system and especially with integrated micropixel systems
  • Good potential for interchangeable detectors/readout if built to a standard format


Compared to the Bulk Micromegas technology, the disadvantage is that new technology will not compete for fabricating very-large detectors of the order of 1x1 m2.

This technology is an interface between a detector vessel and a readout structure for an avalanche particle detector, in particular for a MicroPattern Gas Detector (MPGD) such as the MicroMegas detector.
In this invention the various elements of the structure are optimised in such a way the electronic signal is not lost through the resistive layer but is propagated to a separate plane, carrying read-out pads or strips, by capacitive coupling. There is complete separation between the Micromegas detector and the readout electronic plane.

The technology:
• Reduces the charge released by Micromegas during spark formation. It provides spark protection to electronic.
• Easily accommodates any readout electronics by separating detector function and electronics function
• In the case of using integrated pixel chips this structure would solve a technical problem, related to the implementation of many chips, without creating dead space.


Related Publications


P. Colas et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 535 (2004) p.506
Bilevych et al., Nucl.Instrum.Meth. A629 (2011) 66-73
M. Campbell et al., Nucl.Instrum.Meth. A540 (2005) 295-304

Additional know-how and Technologies resistive-micromegaspdf.pdf
Patent application filed.
Technical Domains
Read more
a002dde8-4aee-4226-9eea-d30e22486a2d /sites/ RF Waveguide Vacuum Valve


  • The possibility to use a commercially available vacuum valve in waveguides where high-power – high-frequency is used.
  • Low loss.
  • There are no limitations on the frequency range of the technology. This technology can be used from the lowest frequencies under which vacuum waveguides are used up to quasi-optical transmission lines.
  • The technology can be a clean environmental friendly alternative to the use of SF6, a highly potent green house gas.



  • Waveguide systems - Medical and Industrial field and Scientific accelerator.
  • Satellite & Space Research - The technology may be used to evacuate RF satellite systems using vacuum, in space.

This device enables maintenance to be carried out on a Radio Frequency (RF) waveguide system while keeping, at the same time, part of it under vacuum.


In order to maintain one part of a RF system evacuated while doing installation and maintenance on the other part, dielectric windows are normally used. However, high-power RF can often breakdown this window, leading to loss of vacuum and increased maintenance costs overall.


The technology disclosed here is a valve which can create a vacuum on one side and atmospheric pressure on the other. When the valve is in the open position, RF transmission can take place across the gap with only minimal loss of power. When the valve is in the closed position, maintenance work can be carried out on the atmospheric pressure side, whilst retaining the vacuum on the other. This enables a flexible and reliable maintenance system — without significant loss of waveguide performance.


The RF waveguide vacuum valve was developed for CERN’s Compact Linear Collider test facility.


An international patent application is filed and the technology is ready for licensing.


A 30 GHz dual-mode vacuum valve with an overall length of 100 mm and a diameter of the central waveguide section, that contains the TE01+TE02 mode mixture, of 30 mm the transmission measurements show losses of about -0.1dB. These losses consist of two contributions: diffraction losses of -0.033dB and ohmic losses of -0.049dB.


Innovative features

  • No surface electric field in the waveguide section because of TE0n mode conversion, which increases the potential of high power RF transmission because of low loss.
  • In closed position, a vacuum is maintained on one side and atmospheric pressure on the other.
  • In open position, it provides low-loss transmission of RF power.
Radiation and Hadron therapy rf-waveguide-vacuum-valvepdf.pdf No
The technology has been proven by simulations of different frequencies (from 3 to 30 GHz) and a prototype for 30 GHz has been built.
Technical Domains
Read more
db9af112-b0f1-4e59-9c48-5f0c0a1f537c /sites/ ROOT


Data Analysis in various fields. Examples are: High Energy Physics, Astronomy, Biology, Finance and Medicine



  • The command language, the scripting, or macro, language and the programming language are all C++. This is due to a built-in C++ programming language interpreter CINT that also allows for fast prototyping of the macros to be processed since it removes the, time consuming, compile/link cycle.
  • It also provides a good environment to learn C++. If more performance is needed the interactively developed macros can be compiled using a C++ compiler via a machine independent transparent compiler.
  • The system has been designed in such a way that it can query its databases in parallel on clusters of workstations or many-core machines.
  • ROOT is an open system that can be dynamically extended by linking external libraries. This makes ROOT a premier platform on which to build data acquisition, simulation and data analysis systems.

ROOT is a general-purpose framework that provides an object oriented set of tools with all the functionality needed to handle and analyze large amounts of data in an extremely efficient way. It defines the data as a set of objects, and then specialized storage methods are used to get direct access to the separate attributes of the selected objects, without having to touch the bulk of the data. Included in the framework are histograming methods in an arbitrary number of dimensions, curve fitting, function evaluation, minimization, graphics and visualization classes to allow the easy setup of an analysis system that can query and process the data interactively or in batch mode, as well as a general parallel processing framework that can considerably speed up any data analysis process.


Related Publications

•  R. Brun, F. Rademakers, ROOT — An object oriented data analysis framework, Nucl. Instr. and Methods in Physics A 389, Issues 1–2, 11 April 1997, (81-86),


• I. Antcheva, et al, ROOT — A C++ framework for petabyte data storage, statistical analysis and visualization, Computer Phys. Com., 180, Issue 12, December 2009, (2499-2512), (


Available under the Open Source License LPGL Simulations and Computing rootpdf.pdf No Read more
39c4fea2-7cbf-4af1-8766-0021ae64d1c9 /sites/ Single layer 3D tracking semiconductor detector


  • Particle tracking and dose deposition for hadron therapy
  • Compton camera applications such as PET
  • X-ray polarimetry


This invention provides a three-dimensional image of a charged particle using:

  • a single semiconductor detector layer
  • with low power consumption


This invention does not provide precise absolute time stamp information.

This technology is a pixel detector composed of a semiconductor sensor layer in which charges are generated by the interaction with charged particles and an array of read-out circuits (pixels) for detecting signals indicative of charges generated in the corresponding volume of the sensor. The time difference information between neighbouring pixels is used to determine the direction of particle. This information combined with the two-dimensional information obtained in the pixelated array make it possible to reconstruct a three-dimensional image of the particle track.

Area of expertise

Micro-electronics, silicon detectors

Imaging single-layer-3d-tracking-semiconductor-detector-pdf.pdf
Patent filed (filing date: 21 September 2011)
Year Filed
No Read more
b772c712-9828-489b-970e-8550f8ad9bb8 /sites/ Strip SiPM


  • Medical Imaging (Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography TOF-PET)
  • Mass Spectrometry


  • SPADs are arranged as strips
  • Differential readout at both ends of the strip


  • Need to design matching read-out electronics

Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are solid-state single photon counting detectors that consist in an array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPAD). In analog SiPM (aSiPM) designs, all SPADs are connected in parallel, with the analog output signal being fed into the subsequent electronics. A differential readout of each aSiPM’s anode and cathode reduces noise and cross-talk and, therefore, improves the timing performance.

The strip SiPM consists in strips of SPADs and allows arrangements of several thin strips next to each other on a single detector. In contrast to commonly available aSiPM arrays, where through-silicon vias (TSVs) need to be used for an optimal implementation of differential readout, the anode and cathode of SPAD strips can easily be read out at each end. The average of both readings provides the exact timing of the hit, while the time difference provides the position of the firing SPAD on the strip. 

Dosimetry 20190624strip-sipmspdf.pdf
Co-owned with INFN
No Read more
f876929c-9391-47b8-8851-b83bbe2a8265 /sites/ Structured Laser Beam


  • Extremely compact spot size and very low divergence
  • Vast improvement in distance over present-day Structured Beams
  • Self-reconstruction after obstacles
  • Very robust to jitter, vibrations, and variations in the angle of the input beam; it also shows some robustness to fluctuations in air temperature


Possible Application Areas

  • Metrology
  • Satellite communication
  • Gas detection
  • Microscopy
  • Medicine
  • Optical tweezers
  • Laser show

The Structured Laser Beam represents a new paradigm in the creation of non-diffractive beams (NDBs) and it has the potential to greatly improve a number of mainstream applications using laser beams or light beams.

With a very low divergence that keeps the spot size within a few millimetres even at distances of hundreds of metres (with a beam waist of a few µm right after the output of the system), this beam may enable lasers to be used for applications not previously possible, or improve precision within existing applications.

NDBs are frequently used today, primarily by the use of axicons. These can only generate NDBs over a small portion of the beam, typically limited to a few tens of centimetres. The Structured Laser Beam is able to generate an NDB over hundreds of metres, with lower costs. It is therefore possible to envision the application of this beam in applications where NDBs are not typically used today; either in other laser/light beam applications as mentioned above, or entirely different fields. In addition, the Structured Laser Beam exhibits other properties, unique to this beam, and of benefit to other applications.

Miroslav Šulc & Jean-Christophe Gayde Europe: WO2019211391 (A1)

Due to the unclarified IP status, the system can only be presented as a black box. The physical dimensions of the prototype are approximately those of a matchbox. The input is a regular Gaussian laser beam, the output is a short- and long-distance NDB. The dimensions are not absolute: it should be possible to achieve a much smaller system.

The invention is a novel method of generating a structured/non-diffractive beam over large distances:

  • Like a Bessel beam, our beam is self-reconstructing
  • Depending on the setup, the system is very robust with respect to the incoming beam. An angular displacement of the input beam gives a much smaller (tested up to a factor 100+) angular displacement in the output beam
  • Our beam is composed by an inner central spot with high intensity, surrounded by concentric rings with particularly clear contrast between them, compared to conventionally produced structured beams
  • The diameter and number of rings can be tuned over a wide range
  • Central spot with much smaller diameter than for conventional Gaussian laser (20 µm against 800 µm at three meters)
  • Intensity is decreasing with the square of distance from the source
Additional know-how and Technologies structured-laser-beampdf.pdf
Europe: WO2019211391 (A1), EP3564734 (A1)
Year Granted
No Read more
e5073bbe-3fe4-428c-9538-1cd0f06990dc /sites/ Thermal Management Materials


Thermal management components for…

  • High-end electronics (e.g. heat spreaders and cooling blocks)
  • Automobile components (e.g. cooling for advanced braking systems)
  • Aerospace components
  • Other thermal-management devices


  • Excellent performance in extreme thermo-structural conditions
  • Performance validated in use at CERN
  • Twice the thermal conductivity and ¼ of the weight as copper

As part of its accelerator R&D programme, CERN has developed a family of novel, graphite-based composite materials to perform reliably in extreme thermo-structural conditions. The most outstanding results have been with Molybdenum Carbide-Graphite composites (MoGr)—developed in collaboration with Brevetti Bizz (IT)—that exhibit thermal conductivities up to 900 W m−1K−1 , very low coefficients of thermal expansion, and a density lower than aluminium.

These properties make the materials suitable for applications where efficient thermal management and/or high temperature operability are of significant importance. The composition may also be modified to have properties required for specific applications.


Further information:

  • Thermal conductivity up to 900 W m−1K−1
  • Density as low as 2.5 g cm-3
  • Coefficient of thermal expansion similar to semiconductors
  • Resistant to temperatures higher than 2000 °C (in inert atmosphere), or 400 °C in air
  • Resistance to radiation damage
  • Produced by Pulsed Electric Current Sintering (PECS), also known as Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) or Field Assisted Sintering
  • Milled to final shape with conventional machining techniques
  • Optional superficial coatings such as metallic molybdenum can be applied
thermal-management-materialspdf.pdf No
Technical Domains
Read more
486e211d-db90-4550-b95d-0f432824df90 /sites/ Thin film coatings for improved vacuum performance


  • Improvement of pumps or creation of innovative pumps
  • Electron and cathode tubes
  • Vacuum thermal insulation at high temperature (solar applications)
  • Vacuum components of any types (blanks, bellows, crosses, Tees, transitions) to replace or complement pumps of other types
  • Microelectronics
  • acuum thermal insulation at low temperature

CERN experts have significant expertise across a range of thin film coating techniques for producing High & Ultra-High Vacuum, particularly Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) thin film coatings. NEG coatings are produced by sputtering an alloy of several selected metals onto a vacuum chamber wall. When activated by heating, the NEG chemically reacts to reduce the amount of gas in the vacuum chamber. NEG coatings also block the outgassing of the underlying vacuum chamber walls.

CERN experts can provide consultancy, training and licensing of proprietary CERN techniques for the application of NEG coatings.

Consultancy, training and licensing of proprietary CERN techniques in:

  • Production of NEG thin films (vacuum, sputtering, surface preparation, adhesion)
  • Preparation of sputtering targets
  • Coating of vacuum chambers
  • Monitoring of NEG coatings activation by XPS
  • Measurement of vacuum performance of NEG coatings
  • Use of MolFlow software for vacuum calculations and thin film thickness profiles
CERN experts can provide consultancy, training and licensing of proprietary CERN techniques for the application of NEG coatings. Patent WO1997EP03180 (filed 1997) now expired.


  • Baking at temperature in the range 180°C to 400°C
  • Ultra-high vacuum is achieved (10e-13 Torr)


  • Reversible process for hydrogen
  • Up to 50 venting cycles possible with marginal performance loss
  • The chemical reactivity of the NEG can be recovered by heating at temperature as low as 180°C


  • Cannot be exposed too often to ambient air
  • Requires high degree of know-how
neg-thin-film-coatingspdf.pdf No Read more
38682fdc-2d4a-4dba-aa47-6f8dea44cec4 /sites/ Timepix3


  • Pixel size 55μm x 55μm
  • 256 x 256 pixels
  • Timepix3 is suitable for readout of both semiconductor detectors and gas-filled detectors
  • Single thresholds per pixel each with 4 bits of local adjustment
  • Two main measurement modes: (1) simultaneous 10 bit ToT and 18 bit TOA and (2) 10 bit event counting and 14 bit integral TOT
  • TOT monotonic for large positive charges
  • Fast TOA for time stamping with a precision of 1.56 ns
  • Data driven readout: dead time free, for a maximum hit rate of 40 Mhits/s/cm2
  • Shutdown/wake-up features for power pulsing tests on a full system
  • 3-side buttable (with a single 1.2mm dead edge)
  • TSV ready



  • X-rays imaging
  • Particle track reconstruction.
  • Timepix3 is suitable for readout of both semiconductor detectors and gas-filled detectors.

Timepix3 is a general-purpose integrated circuit suitable for readout of both semiconductor detectors and gas-filled detectors. Compared to Timepix1 the circuit has more functionality, better time resolution and more advanced architecture for continuous sparse data readout with zero-suppression. Timepix3 can be used in a wide range of applications varying from X-rays imaging to particle track reconstruction. 

Depending on the application requirements user can choose one out of three data acquisition modes available in the Timepix3. In the data driven mode both arrival time information and charge deposit information are sent off chip for each hit together with the coordinates of the active pixel. The chosen architecture allows for continuous and trigger-free readout of sparsely distributed data with the rate up to 40Mhits/s/cm2. For imaging applications and for calibrations the possibility exists of operating in frame-based (non-continuous) data readout mode.

The Medipix Collaborations Ready for licensing
CMOS technology0.13μm
Pixel size55μm x 55μm
Pixel matrix256 x 256
DesignCERN, NIKHEF, Bonn University


Analog front end (pixel cell)
Signal polarityPositive and negative
Leakage current-10nA to +20nA
TOA jitter and mismatchCompatible with 1.56ns resolution (gas detector applications)
Time to peak25ns
Noise62 e- rms
Threshold variation (after tuning)30 e- rms
Minimum operating treshold500 e-


Digital part (pixel cell + periphery)
TOA precision1.56ns
Number of bits per hit48
Data sent per hitx, y TOT (10 bits) TOA (18 bits)
Readout uses up to 8 parallel LVDS lines (200 MHZ clock) 
Total analog power consumption (nominal conditions)440mW
Total digital power consumption (@100MHz)450mW
Imaging, Dosimetry timepix3pdf.pdf No Read more
7d751c99-0005-44ea-ac9e-beddaaccc670 /sites/ Timing and High Rate Capable (THRAC) Gas Detector


  • Triggering and Tracking Devices
  • Medical Imaging and digital radiography
  • Fast response Beam Monitoring
  • Small Animal PET scanning
  • Plasma Diagnostics 



  • Cost-effective and easy to build via standard industrial techniques
  • The use in portable instruments could be limited by the use of gas

This technology merges the state of the art of Micro Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) and Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) technologies in to provide a new class of detectors able to provide high rate capability, exceeding 1MHz/cm2, and simultaneously providing sub nanosecond time resolution. Two classes of solutions are found.

One exploits new materials and techniques in MPGDs to improve by orders of magnitude the rate capability of RPCs, presently limited to O(10) kHz/cm2 due to bulk resistivity of the “resistive plates”.

Another class consists of a very recent micro pattern, the Resistive WELL, where the electrodes for amplification stage are both resistive thereby determining the full transparency of the  produced signals from a series of consecutive amplification stages, yielding a much improved time resolution, which is presently this is limited to 3-5 ns, thanks to the competing processes on each WELL layer.


Radiation and Hadron therapy, Imaging timing-and-high-rate-capable-thrac-gas-detectorpdf.pdf No Read more
aeded232-a433-432c-a8d3-6062ccddd38a /sites/ Titanium polishing


  • The metal can be polished down to the nanometer level
  • Enables efficient detection of flaws in the surface
  • The process can be run with low power consumption
  • Creates a shining, mirror like appearance
  • Provides easy maintenance of hygienically clean surfaces due to reduced particle adhesion
  • There is practically no size limitation on the item to be polished
  • Provides metallic purity and chemical passivity


  • Vacuum technology
  • Medical industry: implants, tools
  • Jewelleries, spectacles frames, watches
  • Aerospace: turbine blades
  • Electronics, storage discs

Titanium polishing is a process to reduce the roughness, and thereby increase the brightness, of a metal surface made of titanium or titanium alloy. The technology described here is a patented electrolytic method (electropolishing), and related technical know-how, to polish titanium to a high degree of surface smoothness - typically down to the nanometer level. CERN’s titanium polishing method uses a chemical bath formed of sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid and acetic acid, which can be complemented with the addition of a cationic wetting agent - providing the benefits of better regulation of the electrochemical process, less metal dissolution, and lower power consumption.

The process is used at CERN primarily to polish electrodes, which require an ultra-smooth surface to avoid sparks during operation. However, the chemical bath and electrolytic parameters could be optimised for other applications, with practically no limit on the size of the sample to be treated.



Available for licensing and partnerships.


  • Temperature of bath: 10 – 30 degrees C
  • Achievable roughness: Ra of around 0.05 to 0.10 µm
  • Voltage: approximately 10 V
  • Polishing speed: 1 – 2,5 µm/minute. Applied current: 5 – 14 A/dm2


Innovative features:

  • The chemical composition of the bath

  • The polishing method


Additional know-how and Technologies titanium-polishingpdf.pdf
Patent granted in Europe, France, Russia and USA. PCT. WO0100906.
Technical Domains
Read more
09f6ebcb-813c-4e9a-af00-5f2d7080a4a3 /sites/ Train Inspection Monorail (TIM)


  • Surveying.
  • Radiation mapping.
  • Temperature and oxygen percentage measurements.
  • HD pan-tilt-zoom camera system for visual inspection.
  • Photogrammetry.
  • Thermal imaging.
  • Tunnel infrastructure monitoring with vision.
  • Safety – fire prevention & detection. Evacuation monitoring.



  • Modular extendable architecture allowing for specialized functionality to be added.
  • Fully autonomous safe operation. No expert operator is necessary.
  • 4G or WiFi communications.
  • GUI used to monitor the mission under way.
  • Can be operated with human presence in the tunnel.
  • Versatile charging modes.
  • Fast. Speed up to 10 km/hr. 

The Train Inspection Monorail (TIM) is a mechatronic product initially designed for CERN’s specific needs, with the goal to provide unmanned operations in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel when there is no active beam, during beam stops and machine shut-downs. The main functionalities that TIM provides, are surveying, monitoring, safety and ad-hoc interventions when necessary.

The train operates on a monorail that is installed on the ceiling all around a tunnel. Communication is done via 4G but can also be done via WiFi. It consists of five wagons: control, battery, motor, payload and reconnaissance wagon, each one designed for a different purpose. All wagons are featured with different types of cameras, sensors, PCs, controllers and mechatronic systems. The system is extensible and adaptable by varying the sensors, cameras and equipment on board. Moreover, by adding items like robotic arms the versatility of TIM can be further extended. TIM is an autonomous system that can be operated from the surface through an advanced human machine interface (HMI), which allows the operator to manage its movement and send it to perform various missions autonomously. In addition, TIM gives a reliable visual feedback using the cameras, installed along the train, as well as the status feedback of all the important data acquired, in real-time. 

Ready for licensing train-inspection-monorail-timpdf.pdf No Read more
13fd29d4-3f68-4cd9-9377-82bff28878f9 /sites/ VESPER

VESPER (Very energetic Electron facility for Space Planetary Exploration missions in harsh Radiative environments) is a high energy electron beamline for radiation testing which is part of the CLEAR (CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research) experimental linear electron accelerator at CERN. The main application of the beamline is to characterise electronic components for the operation in a Jovian environment, in which trapped electrons of energies up to several hundred MeVs are present with very large fluxes. In addition, the use of the beam line for the characterisation of devices and detectors in a purely electro-magnetic beam for high-energy accelerator applications is also relevant. Read more at

Technical Domains
Read more