The Integrated 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) is a modification of the existing 2PACL system developed for the AMS-Tracker and LHCb-VELO CO2 cooling systems. The integrated 2PACL method is a different way of operating and control the original 2PACL concept. The modification makes the system simpler, more reliable, better to control and cheaper.
Figure 1 shows the integrated 2PACL principle. Here the accumulator cooling is integrated with the internal heat exchanger. The only remaining control of the system is a simple heater control in the accumulator. This makes the new principle easier to use and control. It will also be much cheaper to build.
- Verlaat B., Colijn A.P., “CO2 Cooling Developments for HEP Detectors”, 18th International Workshop on Vertex detectors, Putten, The Netherlands, 2009
- Colijn A.P, Verlaat B, “CO2 Cooling for Particle Physics Experiments”, 9th IIF/IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Working Fluids, Sydney, Australia , 2010
- Colijn A.P, Verlaat B, “Evaporative CO2 Heat Transfer Measurements for Cooling Systems of Particle Physics Detectors” , HEFAT-2010, 7th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Antalya, Turkey, 2010
Advantages & Applications
Accurate thermal control of distant set-ups with small additional cooling hardware is a common goal in many hi-tech equipment. The easiness of using the Integrated 2PACL makes it ideal for experimental set-ups as its connection is as easy as the use of a normal thermostatic bath, which is often used now.
- Clean and green technology
- Small cooling tubes
- Accurate (isothermal) and direct temperature control on distant experiments
- CO2 is an inexpensive fluid