Innovative ideas and technologies from physics have contributed to great advances in the field of medicine over the last 100 years, since the advent of radiation-based medical diagnosis and treatment following the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity. Nowadays, state-of-the-art techniques derived from particle accelerators, detectors and computing are routinely used in clinical practice and medical research centres: from technology for PET scanners and dedicated accelerators for cancer therapy, to simulation and data analysis tools.